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Book Report On 1984 By George Essay. Winston Smith is about 39 and essay, has on ulcer on his left ankle. He had to wear blue overalls as a rule of the party. He lives in Victory Mansions by himself. Essay! One show more content On page 11 Winston is of pope essay, looking for razor blades because the party underestimated the amount needed when he walks into an antique shop and ends up buying a diary. This was not illegal only because there were no laws, but it could be thought as an act punishable to the Thought Police. When Winston got home he decided to write in his new diary only not knowing what to write. He just started writing about a war movie that he saw last night not even remembering why he bought this diary. On page 12, we meet a friend of Winston’s, Charlie O’Brien, who is a member of the inner party and a large burly man with a thick neck. Also, on page twelve, I did not know what bigoted meant.

It means someone who is devoted to essay his own opinions and prejudices. On page 13, Winston hears on the telescreen the “Two Minutes of Hate” which came on of pope, every day. This was usually to test the people to see if they believed in letter the party. The person usually giving this speech is the former leader of the party Emmanuel Goldstein who is the enemy of the people. Winston could not talk to summary on criticism any of his co-workers. He was not allowed to possess memories and if you were caught some how it was all punishable by the Thought Police. Everyone was living in horrible conditions. Food Thesis! George Orwell described the provinces of This book was published as a political statement to the world regarding what will happen in 1984 if the summary essay national governments continued to migrate towards totalitarian powers. In 1949, the year this book was published, totalitarian powers and dictatorships were becoming more and more prominent in english gcse the world. The title of this book suggests, to summary essay on criticism those in 1949, that the environment described in this book is a real possibility in only thirty-five years.

The Totalitarian Empires in the 40’s and 50’s could Symbolism in 1984 by George Orwell Essay. Another major symbol in english no coursework 1984 is dust. Dust is everywhere in Oceania. It is in Winston’s apartment, on the streets, and even in the creases of Mrs. Parson’s face. The dust, and the ruin it represents, symbolizes the level of the summary of pope decay of the physical world prevalent in Oceania. It gives the english impression that the quality of life in Oceania is constantly being made worse be the rules of the government. This reinforces the theme of of pope essay “the destruction of the human spirit.” Orwell was trying to impose upon George Orwell 1984 Anaylsis Essay. there would have never been a relationship between the two. Self expression is the article magazine newspaper research story write second step to intimacy. The first step, also taken by Julia, is the personal freedom of choosing who you would like to express you feelings toward. In the world of “1984” the overbearing government appropriately titled “Big Brother” forbids self expression of of pope essay all kinds as a tactic to control the population.

The motive behind this is to have complete control over every aspect of the citizen’s life. Widdowson! The government who Essay The Novel 1984 by George Owells. anything then they erase the past, lie about it, make that lie beneficial to them, therefore, making the past impossible to prove. (Orwell 372). Summary Essay On Criticism! 1984 rarely explains the meaning of truth and essay, what it is, it explains that water is wet, and stone is hard, but the novel goes deeper into the meaning of truth in the eyes of the individual and of pope on criticism, the Party. Early in 1984 the common action of Doublethink, which is holding two contradictory beliefs in article feature magazine writing one's mind and summary essay, accepting them both, is introduced. (Dwan An Analysis of George Orwell and 1984 Essay. in Southwold, England and began to look for work as a young adult (Quinn). The oppression he felt from his earliest experiences are just one half of the driving force for his many novels, the most biographically and historically relevant being 1984, published within a year before his death.

His experiences in school, although criticized for being exaggerated by essay on guernica fellow classmates, are primarily what sets the tone for his beliefs in adulthood and summary of pope on criticism, further sets the tone for his final piece of work The Novel 1984 by George Orwell Essay. lowering their predictions substantially below the actual outcome. The Party also monitors most citizens with a telescreen, which is a monitor that can hear and see everything that you do, and also spouts propaganda for the Party. In the beginning of the book, Winston begins writing in a diary that he bought from the Proletariat district of London, which is a highly impoverished area that is paper, relatively marginalized by the Party and is not seen as a threat. Essay On Criticism! This is why many “Proles” do not have telescreens Essay about 1984 a Novel by George Orwell. justify the means at this point in time, what stops these seats of power going further like in 1984? What stops the governments we rely so heavily on, from role of research paper becoming so obsessed with control that constant surveillance becomes a fact of life?

Not only did 1984 plant the seed of suspicion in of pope essay my mind about article research write writing governments, it left me disturbed and shocked about the main character Winston. In the final part of the book Winston and of pope, his lover, Julia, are imprisoned in a government facility. They have both been There was a lot of action at that time of the story. This is an important scene because if they hadn’t had done that there wouldn’t be a story and if there wasn’t a story I would have had to oick another book for my book report and I would have missed out on a great book. The second scene I like was when they told the FBI about the people in the white van and how the people in essay on guernica the whit van would follow them around and how they were in danger because someone was after them. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! I love stories with 1984 by George Orwell a Comparison to the World Essay. fact that almost everywhere we go there are security cameras watching what we do just like telescreens are used in 1984. Even in our school there are cameras in every single corner.

Another way in how this connects to the real world is that the patriot act does not allow us to speak our free words, in on guernica fact just like big brother can do to us, we can be arrested and summary of pope essay, held for as long as George Bush wants without charges pressed against us. (Edward Capocy, Big Brother Is Not Just Watching Us, Arizona Republic 1984, by George Orwell and the USA Patriot Act Essay. front of their computers and essay on guernica, the only friendships they have are other people on summary on criticism, the computer. And they're open to being too trusting and english, thinking what they read is true (Lefevre). This effect is shockingly similar to the actions of “Big Brother” in 1984. Big Brother is the summary essay leader of the Party and the symbol of dictatorship. No one knows if Big Brother is male or female, even his or her existence is unknown. The Party could have just created this false image just to english gcse no coursework keep the proles in line and under

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Summary an essay on criticism by Alexander pope

Residential Architecture of Washington, D.C., and Its Suburbs. Contrary to the American norm, Washington's monumental buildings have been more intensely studied than its domestic architecture. The city's position as the capital of the on criticism, United States, the national architectural significance of many of the on guernica, monuments and of pope on criticism, government buildings in its central core, and copious archival documentation about them have contributed to wide-spread knowledge of Washington's greatest public architecture. Cover Letter. Few, however, of Washington's private residences have been considered of sufficient national importance to be included in summary of pope essay general surveys of essays widdowson, American architecture, and only a handful of publications have been devoted exclusively to them. Summary Of Pope On Criticism. Many important nineteenth-century Washington houses including B. Henry Latrobe's John P. Magazine Newspaper Research. Van Ness House (1816-7), James Renwick's W. W. Corcoran House (1849-54), and H. H. Richardson's double house for John Hay and of pope, Henry Adams (1884-86), and even John Russell Pope's John R. McLean House of 1907, all within sight of the White House, were destroyed before they were recognized as outstanding examples of American domestic architecture.1. Consciously inclusive late twentieth-century historiography, coupled with the revitalization of inner city neighborhoods and the historic preservation movement, have led to essays by peter widdowson a reassessment of the social and cultural values of the entire built environment. During the same period appreciation of the unique aesthetic ideas and cultural characteristics of summary of pope, every era, no matter how recent, has come with the maturing of American architectural history as a scholarly discipline. Whereas visual grace and gcse, the client's prominence were formerly the primary yardsticks for judging a house's architectural worth, many recent scholars consider broadly defined social and cultural values and the meaning to the community as a whole of summary on criticism, greater significance. The nature of the architectural drawings and related materials in the Prints and Photographs Division pertaining to Washington's domestic architecture allows for all these methodological approaches.

Washington's nearly 250-year history of domestic architecture offers a notable range of periods, styles, and types and is remarkable for the nearly intact survival of feature newspaper research story write, many eighteenth and nineteenth-century residential neighborhoods near the city's governing and commercial centers. Summary Essay On Criticism. Moreover, most of its extensive mid-to-late nineteenth and twentieth-century suburban neighborhoods (within the city's boundaries as well as in many of its contiguous Maryland and Virginia counties) retain their original ambiance with few incursions. Paper. In-depth study of most houses built during the first half of this period--including the on criticism, White House--is hampered by scarce graphic and textual documentation, as well as often extensive changes in the fabric of the surviving examples. However, resources abound for essays by peter widdowson, research on many houses erected after 1877, the date of the earliest surviving building permits. Some of the on criticism, permits, housed in the National Archives and the District of Columbia Archives, contain original blueprints or brownlines of both elevations and plans. The as yet unexplored office archives of a few of Washington's twentieth-century firms have survived, are now housed in english no coursework the Prints and of pope, Photographs Division of the Library of Congress, and offer primarily visual documentation on a wide range of housing styles and types. Typically most of Washington's domestic commissions went to essay on guernica local architects, while most of the essay, federal government buildings were designed by architects of national reputations, few of whom made Washington their permanent home.

A few Georgetown houses built prior to the city's founding in 1791 survive, but none within the city's original boundaries do. The location and footprints of those in Georgetown are recorded on survey maps done by english gcse no coursework, B. Henry Latrobe in 1802-4 as part of of pope essay, his design for the Washington Canal. Those within the city's boundaries appear on a series of survey maps done by Robert King during the 1790s.2 Beginning in the 1930s the Historic American Buildings Survey did measured drawings recording some early Georgetown houses, including the exteriors and interiors of the carpenter Christopher Layhman's house (HABS DC-10-2, sheet 1 of 3) (Old Stone House, HABS: DC, GEO, 3-), located at 3051 M Street, N.W. HABS drawings for now destroyed early buildings erected within the bounds of the original federal city are more numerous and range from inexpensive wood cottages, as the Hamburgh Village House (HABS DC,10-6-) built about 1790, at 412 20th Street, N.W., to John Mason's imposing stone house erected on Analoston, now Theodore Roosevelt Island, about 1815 (HABS DC, WASH, 131-)3. Historic American Buildings Survey; Stuart M. Barnette, del.. Row house, 2411 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Measured drawing; plan, elevations and details. Ink on paper, 1936.

HABS DC-27, sheet 2 of 2. Until single-family-house-size lots were laid out beyond Boundary (Florida, since 1890) Avenue beginning in the 1850s, rowhouses were the major house typology in Washington (HABS DC-27). Long, rectangular lots were platted specifically to promote contiguously fronted buildings, but individual rowhouses initially outnumbered continuous rows built by developers. Cover. Both groups were governed by the city's building regulations, first enunciated by summary of pope, President Washington's proclamation of 17 October 1791 and amended frequently over the next two centuries.4 The original eight articles stipulated building materials (brick and stone for article feature magazine research story write, party walls), access by city officials to regulate common areas, and two design criteria. The heights of summary of pope on criticism, houses were limited to forty feet with those built on the avenues to article newspaper research story write be at least 35 feet tall. All buildings were to be parallel to summary of pope essay the streets, but set backs could be determined by the improvers. Two early abortive proposals for development of entire squares in the city reflected contemporary European urban planning measures. Widdowson. The prizes in Samuel Blodget's second lottery scheme, announced on of pope 20 May 1793 were six magnificant dwelling houses ranging in value from $20,000 to $5,000 for which two beautiful Designs are already selected for essay on guernica, the entire Fronts on two of the Public Squares; from summary of pope essay on criticism, these Drawings it is proposed to erect two Centre and four Corner Buildings, as soon as possible after this Lottery is sold.5 The lottery failed and the architect or architects of the two beautiful Designs are unknown although James Hoban must be considered as he designed the feature magazine write, hotel, called Blodgett's Hotel that was erected as a result of the essay on criticism, first lottery. The entire arrangement described by the prospectus was modelled on contemporary Dublin, Edinburgh, or London residential squares. In 1793 a French-trained architect, G[eorges ?] du Jareau, a refugée from Santo Domingo, sent the cover letter, commissioners drawings and a detailed proposal for on criticism, a scheme to develop the new city's residential squares with contiguous double houses joined together by party walls (drawings and written description in the National Archives, RG 42).

Exterior flat facades would abut the streets with entries into each unit via passageways leading to small interior courts; the compact units were then to be arranged around a large rectangular common ground in the center of each square, instead of the fenced yards and gardens denoting private property lines that became the paper, American urban norm. The North American Land Company's failed early rowhouse development of 30 units at the corner of summary essay, South Capitol and N Street, S.W., was one of the most ambitious housing developments of its type actually built in America in the 1790s. Probably designed by William Lovering as well as built by him, the Twenty Buildings (as they were called, even though there were 30) had a short life due to ms mrs the long litigation in which it played a key part in settling the debts of the essay, developers Thomas Law, John Nicholson, and Robert Morris. In the 1930s an architectural drawing for the Twenty Buildings was seen among Chancery Court papers in the Maryland Hall of Records, but it can no longer be located.6. In most cases the architects of Washington's early houses are unknown.

James Hoban, who owned extensive property in Washington at the time of his death in 1831, undoubtedly designed many private and speculative houses in and around the city, but his papers and drawings were destroyed in a fire in the 1880s. George Hadfield, whose only known surviving house is the Custis-Lee Mansion in Arlington Cemetery (1820), must also have designed many of Washington's homes before his death in 1826. The only cover ms mrs, surviving drawing of essay, a house by by peter, him, dated 1798, was presumably designed for a site in or around Washington; its patron, or whether it was ever built, are unknown.7. William Thornton, architect. Preliminary design, house for John Tayloe, the Octagon,” 1799 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Essay. Floor plan. Story Writing. Ink, watercolor, and graphite on essay paper. Ca. 1800. Food Thesis. ADE - UNIT 2581, no. Summary Of Pope. 1 (A size)

Innovative and essays widdowson, conservative house designs date from every period of of pope, Washington's history, with traditional stylistic and planning solutions predominating for low and middle income housing but both avant garde and traditional forms providing models for homes of the city's wealthy citizens. Two early architects with important Washington domestic commissions whose papers, including drawings, have survived, B. Henry Latrobe and William Thornton, exemplify sophisticated domestic design from the 1790s until about 1820. Scattered archival evidence of the career of a traditionalist of the same era, architect-builder William Lovering exists, including his only known drawing (in the Philadelphia Athenaeum) for a group of article story writing, rowhouses known as the Six Buildings, erected on Pennsylvania Avenue at 20th Street N.W. about 1810. Thornton's known drawings consist primarily of conceptual sketches and renderings rather than final presentation, contract, or working drawings. Hence the fine finished quality of his two important Washington residences, the Octagon House for John Tayloe (ADE - UNIT 2581) and Tudor Place (ADE - UNIT 2588) for Robert Peter, is known from the structures themselves and from twentieth-century measured drawings of them done after changes to their original fabrics had already occurred. B. Henry Latrobe, architect. Entrance Hall, Commodore Stephen Decatur House, 748 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C. Plan, elevations, and section. Graphite, ink, wash, and watercolor on paper. 1818.

ADE - UNIT 2558, no. Summary Essay On Criticism. 4 (B size). Latrobe's drawings of his residential works, both executed and proposed, form the essay on guernica, basis for their in-depth study, as only four of his American houses survive. The best known of these is the cubic house he designed for Stephen Decatur (1817-8) facing Lafayette Square (ADE - UNIT 2558). The relationship between Latrobe's drawings and buildings is succinctly demonstrated by his drawing for the Decatur House vestibule: his ability to convey the summary of pope essay on criticism, three-dimensional spatial quality of architecture simultaneously with the physicality of architectural form. The excitement of Latrobe's drawings is ms mrs, that they record with immediacy and beauty the process of his architectural thought, the transference of ideas to paper complete with information for the next step in the process, the means both visual and written to accomplish construction by artisans. No other American architect of Latrobe's generation left such a rich graphic legacy of domestic architecture of the of pope essay on criticism, federal period, albeit drawings for some of role paper, his Washington houses, such as that for John P. Van Ness, formerly located at the northwest corner of Constitution and 17th Streets, are unfortunately lost, while those for some of his unexecuted designs survive (John Tayloe House, ADE - UNIT 2886). Latrobe's sophisticated command of small-scale architectural forms and imaginative domestic arrangements were unsurpassed in his day, and of pope on criticism, arguably stand near the acme of American residential design. Essay On Guernica. Latrobe's considerable influence on contemporary builders and architects was particularly strong in Georgetown and on criticism, Washington, where even details as simple as his sunken circular molding to terminate lintels that extend beyond the window or door openings (bull's-eye lintels) were widely copied (HABS DC-16, drawing sheet 5 of 5 and photo HABS - DC, WASH, 28-24). During the first decades of the nineteenth century most new houses in Washington filled in the missing gaps of the streets initially settled along a rough diagonal swath from Capitol Hill to Georgetown.

Daniel Reiff attributes Washington's conservative Greek Revival domestic architecture from about 1820 through the on guernica, 1840s to summary of pope the local strength of the builder tradition. Magazine Research Story Write Writing. Generally Greek Revival house forms in of pope essay Washington were essentially the same as those of the on guernica, Federal period, but door and summary essay, window surrounds became bolder and more planar as the delicately carved or incised ornament of the turn-of-the-century Federal style was replaced by broad, plain surfaces. Essay. In more stylistically advanced examples square attic windows replaced the metopes in classical friezes, a motif that the Philadelphia architect William Strickland believed to be an American contribution to the long history of transformations of classical architectural traditions.8 Double-story Greek Revival Doric porticoes, common on important houses in many parts of the country, were an anomaly in of pope Washington. George Hadfield's massive Doric portico of the George Washington Parke Custis House, Arlington House, designed in newspaper 1820 was set atop the summary of pope on criticism, ridge that visually defined Arlington's skyline. It was intended to be an immense stage set when viewed from the city to mark the site of an intended museum and monument to George Washington. No drawings by Hadfield for Arlington House are known to have survived, but two watercolors and two pencil sketches done by essays by peter, A.J. On Criticism. Davis about cover letter, 1830 to 1834 depict its dominating presence in Washington's greater city-landscape.9. Gilbert White, builder.

House, Normanstone for Robert Barnard, 3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Summary Of Pope Essay. Perspective. Ink on paper. Ca. 1830. ADE - UNIT 2752, no. Of Research Paper. 5 (A size). Although few are known from this early period, builders did produce drawings of their buildings, often to accompany written specifications.

Gilbert White's drawings of about 1830 for Normanstone (ADE - UNIT 2752), a house located on what later became known as Massachusetts Avenue Heights, demonstrate Reiff's premise: they are primitive line drawings for a substantial two-story, three-bay, hipped-roof rectangular building, a vernacular house form familiar in America during the previous two centuries. On some of White's drawings specifications appear on summary of pope the same sheet, an indication that the graphic image functioned for him as a record, perhaps even a legal document, rather than as a medium to explain design ideas or to instruct craftsmen. No refinements of proportion or detail were included in White's drawings because he himself erected the letter ms mrs, house according to a familiar and accepted formula, perhaps aided by other workmen as well schooled in traditional forms and building techniques as himself. With the exception of William Lovering and several late nineteenth century builders, principally Robert I. Fleming, the careers of Washington's important early architect-builders, such as Charles Sengstack, have not been systematically studied due to summary on criticism scanty information. Examination of the membership and goals of letter, various builders' societies established in the first half of the century, supplemented with newspaper accounts and advertisements, would increase our knowledge of the business of constructing the private city during its early and mid developmental stages.10. The rarity as well as the limited nature of essay, drawings such as White's are ameliorated by other graphic and photographic evidence.

Printed views of Washington give an overall impression of the mixture of public and private structures, as do early watercolors. The two most extensive collections of Washington views are those in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress and the Maachen Collection at the Historical Society of Washington. Individual houses in article feature magazine research story write many lithographs can occasionally be linked to written documents to verify architects and dates of construction.11 The best known of the early watercolorists was the Baroness Hyde de Neuville, the wife of the French ambassador who lived in Washington during the 1810s.12 Watercolors done during the 1840s by August Köllner and essay, John Rubens Smith, as well as those done by Montgomery C. Meigs at mid-century, record the slow and concentrated growth of the food thesis, city's residential neighborhoods between Georgetown and Capitol Hill with K Street their northernmost boundary until after the Civil War.13 Although prints and of pope essay, photographs of feature magazine write writing, wartime Washington and its aftermath abound, no substantial corpus of essay, drawings or watercolors is known that record the city under siege nor its aftermath when the city's streets and squares were transformed under the territorial government's public works projects. Meigs's post-war sketches are primarily of his own building designs. One of America's major architects of the first half of the english gcse no coursework, nineteenth century, Robert Mills, lived in of pope Washington from 1830 until his death in 1855, yet no important house in the city can definitely be assigned to him. He is known to have improved several lots that he owned, presumably by erecting inexpensive rowhouses on them for role, resale.14 Stylistic evidence suggests that Mills may have designed Matthew St. Clair Clarke's house (1836) facing Lafayette Square. Now St.

John's Parish House, it was renovated by Thomas U. Walter in 1854 into an Italianate-style mansion. When architectural models changed at essay mid-century from ancient to role Renaissance ones, Walter, one of America's premier Greek Revival architects, adopted the essay, most recent of the classical revival styles, the Italianate. Walter, the son of a builder who ended his career as president of the American Institute of Architects, epitomized architects who inventively transformed the classical, medieval, and Renaissance languages into varied modern American idioms. The early Victorian period (ca. 1830-1850) coincided with a rise in professional American architects as builders successfully made the cover ms mrs, transition to designers, or their sons (as in Walter's case) were apprenticed to architects.15. Thomas U. Walter, architect. “Front elevation, Design for a Mansion for summary, the Hon.

John Sherman,” Washington, D.C.(?) Elevation. Photographic print of drawing. 1865. ADE - UNIT 2591, no. 3 (C size)(Photo). Italianate houses designed by Walter during the Washington segment of his career included a large villa for Ohio Senator and later Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. Food Thesis. The date 1865 is summary essay on criticism, recorded by mounted photographs of english gcse no coursework, four elevation and two plan drawings (ADE - UNIT 2591) of the Sherman house. The drawings themselves are lost and it is uncertain whether Sherman's country house was intended for a site near Washington, or in Ohio, although the summary essay on criticism, former is role of research paper, more likely as Sherman lived continuously in Washington from 1855 until his death in 1900. Two surviving examples of Walter's Italianate villas, in or near Washington, the of pope essay, T.B.A. Hewlings House, Ingleside (1851: 1818 Newton Street, N.W.)(HABS DC-502), and the Tysen House, Glenelg (1852), in Ellicott City, Maryland, belong to the same series as the Sherman House design.

They all follow a general Italianate villa formula of intersecting masses marked by a tall crossing tower surrounded by multiple verandas, seemingly variants on Andrew Jackson Downing's Southern Villa-Romanesque style illustrated in his Architecture of Country Houses (1850). Charles Frederick Anderson, architect. “North East elevation for No. III Design,” American Villa Architecture (New York: Putnam? 1853. Perspective Rendering. Essay On Guernica. Color lithograph. 1853. Essay On Criticism. PP Case NA7586.A5, p. Cover Letter Ms Mrs. 16. LC-USZC4-4585. Nearly simultaneously Downing himself designed two important Washington houses on a similar model for the brothers Robert and summary, Francis Dodge (1850-1852), located on Q Street in Georgetown. Both houses were completed by Downing's partner Calvert Vaux, who published perspective views and plans of them in Villas and Cottages (1857).

Both of the Dodge villas survive but in considerably altered form; extensive field notes, photographs and drawings of the Robert Dodge House done in 1921 by Joseph Younger while working in letter ms mrs Waggaman and summary of pope, Ray's office (ADE - UNIT 185), preliminary to its transmogrification into a pillared southern manse for Warren Delano Robbins (HABS DC-246), provides valuable additional information on the Downing-Vaux design. In 1853, Charles Frederick Anderson, an entrant in the Capitol Extension competition of essay on guernica, 1850, published his own designs for eighteen Italianate houses in American Villa Architecture, many of which are comparable to Walter's buildings in scale and composition (LC-USZC4-4585 ; NA7586.A5 Case Y, p. 16). Only two copies of Anderson's book, both in the Library of Congress, are known. About 1850 the number of summary on criticism, architects in essays by peter widdowson Washington increased dramatically due less to summary essay the immediate architectural needs of the feature magazine newspaper story writing, city than to the staffing of federal architectural and engineering offices whose function was to provide designs for government buildings nationwide. Establishment of the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department in 1852 brought a constantly changing supply of well-trained architects to the city, many of summary of pope essay, whom moonlighted by designing residences and churches, or later established private practices in essays the city. Likewise many architects who came to of pope essay on criticism Washington to work on the Capitol Extension beginning in 1851, often referred to essay in official records as draftsmen irrespective of their level of training, contributed to the city's domestic architectural scene. Many who were European-trained, or from families of builders with strong European traditions, brought to their somewhat inconspicuous government positions both excellent training in up-to-date engineering principles and the current design attitudes of their respective cultures. The majority whose careers have been at summary of pope on criticism least partially examined were either German-born and trained or the sons of fathers who were. The careers of such well-known local mid-to-late Victorian architects as Adolph Cluss (1825-1905), James G. Hill (1841-1913), and Thomas Franklin Schneider (1859-1938) have been studied because the vitality of their prolific work excited admiration. No collections of their drawings or papers exist to provide scholars with easy access to their extensive practices which included private as well as public structures. Although none of the three can be considered great design innovators on role of research a national level, their individual interpretations of American architectural idioms of their time have left a distinctive stamp on many centrally located Washington neighborhoods.

From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle numerous brick or rock-faced stone rowhouses and free-standing homes are (or were) ornamented with decorative pressed-brick panels (associated with the Queen Anne style) or carved floriate decoration (a hallmark of the Richardsonian Romanesque style.16. Norris G. Starkweather, architect; Historic American Buildings Survey. River and drive fronts, “Camden” or “Camden Place,) country villa for William C. Pratt, Port Royal, Virginia. Perspective rendering. Photograph of original. Drawing 1857, photograph 1934.

ADE - UNIT 2201, no. 4 (B size) and HABS, VA, 17-PORO.V, 2-35. 1934. HABS VA,17-PORO.V,2-34. Only a few miscellaneous drawings of Washington's Victorian domestic architecture survive. Vermont-born Norris G. Starkweather, in partnership from of pope on criticism, 1868-1871 with the architect-builder Thomas M. Plowman, designed, among other important local structures, four double houses known as Cooke's Row on of research Q Street in Georgetown. Starkweather is represented in the Library's collections by a partial set of brownlines (ADE - UNIT 2201), copies of the original watercolor renderings, for the William C. Pratt House, Camden (1857), located in Caroline County, Virginia. Comparison of Camden's two impressionistic elevations labeled river front and drive front with the perspective rendering copied by the Historic American Buildings Survey and the house itself reveals both major and minor differences, suggesting that a study of the role of presentation drawings in the design and building process in America is warranted.17. Seven drawings from 1879 for a double house on the southeast corner of of pope essay on criticism, 17th and K streets, N.W., for Richard L. and Vinnie Ream Hoxie (ADE - UNIT 2900) help document mid-Victorian contextual urbanism. Six of the article magazine newspaper research write, seven are unsigned, drafted or sketched in pencil, and show the strong influence of summary of pope essay, Adolf Cluss on Plowman. Cluss had popularized circular corner towers and multiple-story bays for Washington houses, major features of his triple row of houses built for Alexander T. Sheppard in 1872 diagonally across Farragut Square at Connecticut Avenue and cover letter, K Street, N.W.

Plowman's three Hoxie house elevation drawings show the evolution of his details from neo-Renaissance to neo-Grec as he altered the Cluss prototype from a mid- to High Victorian design. W. Bruce Gray, architect. “Sketch of Entrance Hall,” Joseph M. Toner House, 15th Street and Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. Ink, graphite, and watercolor on paper. Ca. 1880. ADE - UNIT 2505, no. 3 (C size). Three unsigned and undated drawings, two plans and a side elevation, for Secretary of the Smithsonian Spencer R. Baird's residence (c.

1865) at 1445 Massachusetts Avenue NW (ADE - UNIT 2109) indicate how few drawings were used to convey to the client and builder alike the basic forms, proportions, and internal organization for such a substantial Victorian house. W. Bruce Gray's set of sixteen drawings for the Joseph M. Toner House (ADE - UNIT 2505) that replaced Baird's residence in 1880 are notable in themselves and for what they convey. Some are drawn on summary essay on criticism linen, others on paper; color coding of materials is indicated (common for drawings of public structures, but unusual for private ones.) Three alternate plans speculate on how to gcse no coursework organize living spaces and facades with either English or French overtones for the end rowhouse on summary of pope essay on criticism a triangular corner site. Particularly enjoyable, because so unexpected, is role of research, a perspective vignette in ink on sheet sixteen of the entrance hall. Of Pope Essay. Comparison of Gray's drawings with designs published in 1889 by his contemporary and occasional partner, Harvey L. Page, in Houses of Moderate Cost , provides insights into how two of Washington's late Victorian architects, whose main interests were the non-academic styles, perceived and dealt with house typologies.18. Leon Dessez is gcse, another important architect with a large domestic practice represented in the Library's collections. Eight drawings on linen of his 1899 house for E. J. Stellwagen (ADE - UNIT 2305) at the corner of Biltmore Street and Columbia Road, N.W., record his typical synthetic eclectic approach, intended to blend with neighboring houses and the landscape, rather than make any bold statements. Two internal stairwells are drawn in red ink on the west elevation to indicate their relationship to the windows that light them, a nascent step towards representing the interrelationships between interior needs and exterior patterns. Price and McLanahan, architects; Dr. C. L. Marlatt, entomologist. “Carved Panels,” main hall, alterations to the “Residence” of C. L. Marlatt, 1521 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.

Full size details. Blueprint. 1909. ADE - UNIT 2171, no. 15 (E size). Ornament for most Washington Victorian houses was ordered from on criticism, catalogues; a study of the essays, role of architects as designers of essay, sculptural decoration during the Victorian and Arts and Crafts periods, indeed, for the equally rich early twentieth-century academic architecture, would serve the academic and preservation communities alike. One rich source for such study is story write, represented by the numerous original drawings for Victorian ornament and interior architectural details which can be found in the archive of essay, Washington draftsman J. Goldsborough Bruff (ADE - UNIT 1929). Lemuel Norris included a partial north elevation and essay on guernica, partial cross section in summary essay his set of feature newspaper research, contract drawings (with changes indicated and summary of pope essay, signed by letter ms mrs, the builder John McGregor) for entomologist Charles L. Marlatt's house (ADE - UNIT 2170) at 1521 Sixteenth Street, N.W. (1908). Additional sheets of of pope essay on criticism, full-scale ornamental and essays by peter widdowson, structural details by the Philadelphia architects Price and summary of pope essay, McLanahan give all the information needed to carve plant, insect, and animal forms and insert them into the surrounding woodwork for feature magazine write writing, the Marlatt House.19. The Arts and Crafts bungalow was widely disseminated via printed designs; architect's drawings for them are rare.

Comparison of published examples with two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2012) signed by William Douden (1869-1946) of Washington, for W.E. Drumheller's substantial bungalow in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, might help scholars better understand the role of architects in a housing typology dominated by packaged designs. Forty-nine Arthur B. Of Pope Essay. Heaton drawings (ADE - UNIT 495) for food thesis, John Joy Edson's bungalow (1900-1910) in Montgomery County, Maryland, are supplemented by seven drawings (ADE - UNIT 496) for a gardener's cottage. In 1916 Heaton produced thirteen drawings for a bungalow for summary essay, Mrs. Frank M. Heaton, in Washington, D.C. (ADE - UNIT 829).

Studies of other prolific designers of fine-quality Victorian (and later) houses, including John Granville Meyers (1834-1902), Nicholas T. Haller, partners William J. Marsh (d. 1926) and Walter G. Peter (1868-c. 1945), and food thesis, Appleton P. Clark (1865-1955), are merited but hampered because the location of of pope on criticism, their professional papers and drawings are unknown or presently unavailable for study by scholars. Extensive records of A.B. Mullett Company, consisting of retired federal architect Alfred Bult Mullett and two of his sons, have descended in the family. The Mullett papers donated to the Prints and magazine newspaper story write writing, Photographs Division adds breadth and variety to the Library's large holdings on turn-of-the-century domestic design, particularly valuable for comparisons with local contemporaries designing in summary essay on criticism the same vein, notably Waggaman and Ray and Waddy Wood. A. B. English. Mullett Co, architects. Of Pope Essay On Criticism. Studies for two townhouses in album, “City Houses between Party Walls.” Elevations. Graphite on on guernica tracing paper, ca.

1900-1920. LOT 13041, no. Summary Of Pope On Criticism. 4 (A size). The Mullett collection includes a volume of prints cut from architectural journals of designs they admired as well as mounted photographs, most unidentified but presumably the firm's designs. Their known houses, beginning with late Victorian eclecticism and extending to the academic Beaux-Arts and Colonial Revival styles of the first quarter of this century, are pleasant and competently designed. Article Magazine Newspaper Research Write Writing. The firm seems to summary essay on criticism have followed most stylistic trends of the day, rather than breaking new ground, as Mullett senior did with his famous Second Empire government office buildings of the 1870s and '80s.

When the entire corpus of Mullett Company works has been thoroughly compiled, their contributions, particularly to local permutations of Southern and New England Colonial Revival patterns in examples such as the W. Essays Widdowson. H. May House of essay on criticism, 1921 in Langley, Virginia (ADE - UNIT 2267), can be evaluated within the context of other east coast practitioners designing in food thesis a like manner. The group of houses for which lost or destroyed architectural records is particularly lamented are those evocative remnants of Gilded Age Washington, the mansions on or near Dupont, Sheridan, and essay on criticism, Kalorama circles and essay, along 16th Street, N.W., near Meridian Hill. As most now serve as embassies, chanceries, or offices for national or international organizations, their important public or semi-public functions, combined with their urbanistically integrated close-in locations, make them particularly visible exemplars of Washington's peculiar mixture of turn-of-the-century political and social life. Their designers were generally Washington's finest architects; drawings for summary of pope, them are rare, perhaps because their sheer size (frequently 30 x 40) and essays widdowson, bulk (often dozens for a large house) led to their destruction. One small watercolor by George Oakley Totten for an unbuilt mansion on Meridian Hill is among the Mary F. Summary Of Pope. Henderson Papers at the Historical Society of Washington, D.C. Bruce Price De Sibour, architects. “Residence for essay, T. T. Gaff, Esq.,” 20th and Q streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. Of Pope Essay On Criticism. Elevation and partial section. Graphite, ink and colored ink on linen. Cover Letter Ms Mrs. 1903-1904. ADE - UNIT 2014, no. 4 (E size).

Although building permits record several local houses designed by on criticism, the firms of newspaper research write writing, John Smithmeyer and Paul Pelz and Joseph Hornblower and J. Rush Marshall, as well as by prolific architects of the city's mansions, Jules Henri de Sibour, George Oakley Totten, Jr. (ADE - UNIT 2144), and Nathan Wyeth, the fate of their office records is unknown. Fortunate survivors are linen drawings for de Sibour's very fine Thomas T. Gaff House (ADE - UNIT 2014) done in 1904-1905 in of pope partnership with the New York-based architect Bruce Price. Only twenty drawings survive from a group numbered internally up to 220, a set originally so extensive that the entire house, now the Embassy of Colombia, could be faithfully reconstructed from them. Physically large in format, the english no coursework, Gaff House set of summary of pope essay, drawings include full-scale elevation details as well as plans, sections, and detail drawings; similar ones must have been common for contemporary houses of like spatial and surface complexity.20. Occasionally the semi-public careers of architects of this period have enabled scholars to essays by peter amass sufficient visual and written documentation to assess their work. Although best known as an administrator and author, Glenn Brown's surviving houses in the Logan, Dupont, and Sheridan circle areas prove him to have been one of the city's most polished and erudite architects in the first half of the twentieth century.

In 1896 Brown published a thoughtful overview of the city's contemporary houses, noting and illustrating several solutions of how local architects coped with the acute triangular lots created by summary, the city's rectilinear street-diagonal avenue intersections. Many of the essay, fifteen plans illustrate Brown's contention that polygonal rooms shapes and meandering circulation patterns of summary on criticism, many late Victorian homes were due to their irregular sites occasioned by Pierre Charles L'Enfant's innovative urban plan. Brown also recorded the influential presence of actual H.H. Richardson houses in role of research paper the city, all originally clustered between the White House and K Street. But his own architectural output had to be pieced together and must be studied from surviving buildings (frequently altered later) or from photographs, as no corpus of his drawings is known to exist.21. This long litany of losses underlines the great fragility of the summary, paper history of private architectural firms; most of the paper, nineteenth-century survivors in the Prints and Photographs Division are by happenstance. Summary Essay. The Library's systematic collecting of large holdings of twentieth-century architectural drawings affords scholars multiple opportunities to examine in detail Washington's suburbanization. Ms Mrs. The city's twentieth-century growth has been primarily suburban in character, as tract developments of free-standing homes proliferated around the essay on criticism, old city core and essays, extended well into Maryland and summary essay on criticism, Virginia.

The anti-urban nature of much of Washington's domestic architecture, beginning with the White House (combining the sumptuousness of a palace with the convenience of a house and the agreeableness of a country seat, opined L'Enfant), suggests a suburban ideal before this concept was actually given formal expression in the 1840s. Washington clients of single family homes who could afford them, from John Tayloe's city house to millionaires who erected mansions on or near Dupont and essays by peter widdowson, Sheridan Circles, chose urban villas rather than city palaces, in summary of pope order to capture and privately enjoy part of the city's renowned natural beauty. As soon as the city outgrew its original boundaries with its rectilinear street and small lot configurations intended for rowhouses, the middle class also opted for separate houses set within their own grounds. In many areas new irregular street patterns conformed to food thesis or enhanced natural topological features. Certainly the extent and of pope on criticism, typological variety of suburban houses within or contiguous to Washington, including large numbers of catalogue houses, those erected by cover letter ms mrs, builders, those designed by architects for developers, and a large number designed for specific clients, offer a local laboratory with which to study local versions of America's most representative housing type. Each of the early twentieth century architects whose important drawings of houses are preserved in the Prints and Photographs Division is paradigmatic of some variant on summary essay on criticism the academic historicism of the era, ranging from the ultra conservative formality of Waggaman and role paper, Ray to the cosiness of Arthur B. Heaton. A few representative examples of drawings of residences by a few nationally known architects, such as John Russell Pope's superb houses for Henry White of 1910-11(ADE - UNIT 1946) and for Edwin Laughlin of 1920-1924 (ADE - UNIT 1945) on Meridian Hill, both now serving the cultural organization, Meridian House International, have survived.

Two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2173) by the New York firm Delano Aldrich record neo-classical interior alterations made for client Gifford Pinchot to summary Washington's finest Arts and magazine newspaper story writing, Crafts House (now the Democratic Women's Club) designed by summary essay, Harvey Page in 1894. Interior alterations to existing houses, frequently quite extensive, is a particularly important aspect of essays by peter, Washington's twentieth-century design history that is not well represented in the Library's collections. Three of the Library's four large collections of twentieth-century domestic drawings were by architects whose eclectic designs were basically anti-academic in of pope essay nature. Letter Ms Mrs. The stylistically diverse work of Waddy Wood, working alone as well as in partnership with Edmund Donn, Jr. and summary on criticism, William I. Deming, seems remarkable today but was a common achievement of turn-of-the-century American architects. Such versatility exhibited their wide-ranging knowledge and mastery of many architectural traditions as they strove to design contextually for english no coursework, the heterogeneous American scene or for clients whose varied backgrounds or aspirations demanded different domestic ambiances. In Wood's case, his modern renditions of historical styles did not stop with exterior clothing and decorative details, but extended to the shapes and arrangements of his rooms where he also sought historical verisimilitude. Whether reinterpreting British, Spanish, or Dutch American colonial traditions (ADE - UNIT 1042, no. 1 (A size)), or that of the Italian Renaissance or English Baroque, Wood consciously chose prototypes that differed from aristocratic French and continental models favored by summary of pope, his academically trained contemporaries. One exception is his Henry Fairbanks House (1915), later owned by Woodrow Wilson and now a National Trust property. English Gcse. Wood's model for summary of pope essay on criticism, the Fairbanks house facade was Robert Adam's very formal Society of Arts (1772-1776) in London, yet its interior was decidedly more informal, even picturesque, in its room arrangements. The Fairbanks-Wilson House (HABS DC-133) is recorded in the Library's collections by HABS field notes, measured drawings, and the original blueprints showing alterations to Wood's original design.

Thus Wood's houses, even those of a formal nature, have an intimacy associated with smaller scale American and European houses from the sixteenth through the letter ms mrs, nineteenth centuries. His drawings, often crayon or graphite sketches, with their small scale and informal landscape settings, conjure up a typical image of an summary of pope essay on criticism, American house. Wood's exterior elevations are particularly well proportioned and detailed, often establishing a modest scale for streetscapes, as his houses on or contiguous to Sheridan Circle, that mitigate larger, more aggressive neighbors. Wood also experimented with a variety of exterior cladding materials, particularly how different brick colors and textures might be used to promote an authentic feel of the historical styles he was evoking. Whether Wood was designing multiple rowhouses or development units, single townhouses (ADE - UNIT 1106), country guest houses (ADE - UNIT 1118), or suburban single family residences (ADE - UNIT 1685), he formed each to reflect subtly its different urban, suburban, or rural context. Therefore Wood's houses almost invariably fit comfortably with their surroundings, whether natural or manmade. Residential architecture ranging from food thesis, large scale townhouses to modestly scaled and priced suburban development houses comprised a significant part of Arthur B. Heaton's large and of pope essay on criticism, varied practice. In his houses he followed national trends in developer versions of the Arts and Crafts and Colonial Revival styles without contributing any significant innovative ideas. Although not the gcse no coursework, same caliber a designer as Wood, Heaton aspired to summary of pope similar scenic and homey effects as Wood achieved in his more informal dwellings.

Heaton's larger commissions, seen in his early additions from 1900-1910 to the John Joy Edson House in Maryland (ADE - UNIT 495), the Charles F. Article Feature Writing. Denley House of 1927 (ADE - UNIT 515), and summary of pope, his own house in essay on guernica Spring Valley, Wendover, done in essay on criticism 1929 (ADE - UNIT 1040), demonstrate his long-term interest in no coursework reconciling formal and informal planning. Edward W. Donn, Jr., designer and delineator. “Wakefield, Birthplace of George Washington, Developed from lately acquired evidence,” Wakefield, Virginia. On Criticism. Perspective rendering. Photographic print. 1927. ADE - UNIT 2161, no. 1 (Photo size) Within the local context Heaton responded to a moderate income clientele whose preferences were for no coursework, traditional images of American home life. His small Colonial Revival houses were drawn primarily from mid-Atlantic brick models, Gunston Hall understandingly being a favorite prototype.

Heaton was not alone among local architects in essay on criticism his interest in essay on guernica the region's Colonial buildings as objects of study, of of pope on criticism, projected restorations and rebuilding, and role of research, as source material for their own works. Between 1912 and 1914 Glenn Brown and Bedford Brown IV renovated Gunston Hall for its new owner Louis Hertle (ADE - UNIT 2475). In 1927 Waddy Wood's one-time architectural partner Edward W. Donn, Jr., produced a conjectural restoration of Wakefield, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, the birthplace of George Washington, followed in 1930 by a set of working drawings for the Wakefield National Memorial Association for the rebuilding of an early 18th century Virginia country house typifying the summary on criticism, house in which George Washington was born in 1732. Copies of the latter, now lost, have made their way into the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS VA-393 and VA 393-B), and provided the basis for the reconstruction of Wakefield, 1931-32, by the Association, assisted by the federal government, as a National Park Service site. By Peter. Other observances of bicentennial of the birth of George Washington in summary of pope essay 1932 included an large exhibition in Washington, D.C., of food thesis, measured drawings and summary of pope on criticism, topographic surveys of Mount Vernon, Woodlawn Plantation, and Gunston Hall, which apparently included a conjectural restoration of Belvoir on the Potomac (ADE - UNIT 2007) by architect H. Brooks Price.22. For his Arts and Crafts models, Arthur B. Heaton favored the contemporary English half-timbered cottage revival intermingled with American colonial elements rather than strict adherence to the native Stickley school of thought. His well-constructed houses combined clear, logical, and often clever internal space planning with tame and letter, tasteful details chosen from catalogues to of pope essay produce good building quality and proven design formulas for people of moderate means. Heaton's houses are neither intellectually nor emotionally exciting, but they are comfortable as well as functionally serviceable. Clarke Waggaman, architect. “Wrought Iron Gates in Entrance Arch, Residence for Mrs. Helen Meserve,” 1825 R Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.

Sketch elevation. Ink on linen. 1914. Letter Ms Mrs. ADE - UNIT 41, no. 68 (C size). The cosmopolitan sophistication of Clarke Waggaman and George N. Ray's architecture appealed especially to Washington's socially and politically prominent early twentieth-century citizens. The architects' imposing rows or individual town houses, as well as their quietly elegant mansions, imparted to summary essay the Dupont, Sheridan, and Massachusetts Avenue Heights neighborhoods a decidedly European-capital flavor, an environment admired and desired by much of the food thesis, wealthier segment of America's East-Coast population at the time.

Waggaman and Ray houses tended to be large in scale, often filling to capacity their urban lots, as in the Louis Lehr House of summary of pope on criticism, 1911-14 (ADE - UNIT 332) or sharply defining the edges of suburban ones, as in Waggaman's own house of 1917 (ADE - UNIT 363). Essay. The firm's penchant for self-contained cubic and rectilinear masses, even when building on of pope irregular sites, extended to interior volumes which rarely have curved surfaces unlike many other contemporary Beaux Arts houses in Washington. Interior decoration and food thesis, details are a notable aspect of the summary essay, corpus of their drawings. Waggaman Ray's Mrs. Helen Meserve House (ADE - UNIT 41 and of research, ADE - UNIT 42) was particularly notable for its interior detail drawings. The elevation drawing for the iron gate set into an arched wall of the Meserve house includes specifications and essay, written information on its historical source, and the plan shows the placement of the gate in a passageway leading from the drive to a box garden and private lawn (ADE - UNIT 41, no. 6 C size). Collectively their beautifully-proportioned facades follow formulas derived mainly from Italian Renaissance models, evident in the firm's 1912 commissions for food thesis, large townhouses for the Honorable A. B. Butler (ADE - UNIT 179) and summary of pope essay, Captain Anthony F. Lucas (ADE - UNIT 357), rather than French, or other north European countries favored by their contemporaries. George N. Ray, architect. Entrance and article newspaper write writing, stair hall elevations, “Residence for Edward S. Perot,” 29th Street and of pope essay on criticism, Woodland Drive, N.W. (lot 808, square 2200), Washington, D.C. Sectional elevations.

Graphite and feature magazine newspaper story write writing, colored pencil on tracing paper. 1925-1926. ADE - UNIT 339, no. Essay On Criticism. 51 (E size). Waggaman Ray's greatest contribution to no coursework Washington's architectural scene was to of pope create a hybrid Beaux Arts-Georgian Revival style in which they very successfully merged the two, probably in food thesis an attempt to define a new American house that fused traditional eighteenth-century formal English colonial elements with contemporary academic ideas and of pope, ideals, as in their houses Colonel J. R. Williams (ADE - UNIT 180)(now the essay, Embassy of South Africa), Mrs. Sidney Appleton House (ADE - UNIT 45), or that for Mr. and Mrs. William A. Hill (ADE - UNIT 79). The extensiveness of their domestic commissions attests to summary on criticism their popularity among many wealthy Washingtonians; their houses were quieter, more reserved, less ostentatious than the feature magazine story write writing, exuberant, frequently French or Baroque-inspired houses designed by Jules Henri de Sibour or George Oakley Totten, and perhaps for these reasons considered more desirable for clients with behind-the-scenes-power-brokering lifestyles. Waggaman and Ray's occasional forays into exotic or currently stylish historicism, such as the of pope essay on criticism, Moorish-medieval style house for on guernica, Edward S. Perot of of pope, 1925 (ADE - UNIT 339), with an elaborate stairhall, still retain the firm's distinctive flat and restrained treatment of volumetric masses. The Waggaman and no coursework, Ray collection has an of pope on criticism, additional valuable dimension as the repository of copies of letter, other architects drawings that are otherwise unknown.

Blueprints (ADE - UNIT 424) of a house by summary of pope on criticism, Hornblower and Marshall at the corner of 18th and essay on guernica, N streets, N.W. dated 6 May 1896, of Frederic B. Pyle's S.W. Woodward House (ADE - UNIT 398) on LeRoy Place, N.W., of a stable dated 1901 by Marsh and Peter for Rudolph Kauffmann (ADE - UNIT 488) on essay Military Road, and Atkinson and White's design (ADE - UNIT 288) for the L. Food Thesis. Victor Froment House (1922-1923) in Warrenton, Virginia, and J. Lakin Baldridge's drawings for a Washington, D. C., residence for Herbert Adair (ADE - UNIT 340) indicate the summary essay, range of talent and varying importance of commissions found in english this vast collection of drawings. The Donald H. Drayer Archive complements both the Heaton and Wood Archives in that it provides continuity for detailed study of informal middle class housing from the first through the third quarter of summary of pope essay, this century. Drayer with many contemporaries educated during the tumultuous shift from the historicism of the Beaux-Arts system to modernism gave birth to food thesis a new version of of pope on criticism, American historical eclecticism. Their sense of architectural proportions, spatial relations, and decorative elements were a composite, or compromise, between traditional canons and contemporary ones. Probably in response to a common desire among Americans to live in colonial houses, many of Drayer's residences were generic neo-Colonial, but filtered through the anti-historical bias of feature newspaper write writing, modernism.

He responded to the stylistically conservative but increasingly opulent tastes of Washington developers as well as its individual clients, wrapping large, fairly expensive, historically reminiscent exterior envelopes around spatially varied and ornamentally stripped interiors. Drayer included historicizing elements to of pope essay traditional compact house shapes, as Mr. Mrs. Food Thesis. Nathan Landow's house (ADE - UNIT 1484) erected in Bradley Hills in essay on criticism 1969, or the Senator Albert Gore House (ADE - UNIT 1358), where the echoes of America's honorable past mask its present-day amenities. Historical fragments appeared in details such as rug, marble, and write writing, marquetry designs for the Lawrence N. Brandt House of 1972, in Washington ( ADE - UNIT 1632), or even bookcases, in additions to two Lyndon B. Johnson houses in Washington (ADE - UNIT 1414 and ADE - UNIT 1415). The Brandt house plan--three rectangles around a circular central hall--was derived from William Thornton's Octagon House. In general, fine proportions and elegant architectural detail gave way during the summary on criticism, 1940s, '50s, and english no coursework, '60s to new kinds of communal space.

Costly new appliances and heating and air conditioning systems offering physical amenities and comforts gave more pleasure to more people than did finely tuned design elements. Drayer's drawings while recording in detail the of pope essay, taste of mid-twentieth century America through design features such as raised flag stone hearths of the J. A. Mathews House in Montgomery County, Maryland, of 1952 also are of great value in article magazine research writing documenting emerging technological innovations that changed American home life. Of Pope. The Mr. Mrs. Nathan Landow Residence (ADE - UNIT 1484) in gcse Bradley Hills, Maryland, had a three-car garage appended to an elaborate stone and summary of pope essay, stucco, hipped roof mansion; its historicizing decorative details (as a carved keystone) attest to the vitality of Colonial Revival tradition in 1969. The J. A. Magazine Newspaper Story Write Writing. Mathews House in summary of pope on criticism Bannockburn Heights, Maryland, (ADE - UNIT 1225) has all of the new communal spaces--family room, TV room, and rec room--associated with mid-to late twentieth-century life in America, as well as expanded storage areas (work shops as well as purpose-built closets), efficient modern kitchens, and multiple bathrooms that are now part of standard house designs. The role of property developers in Washington's architectural history needs thorough scholarly examination.

Most Washington houses, whether rowhouse or single family residence, were built as part of real estate developments. James Hoban, often working in partnership with the house builder Pierce Purcell, was actively involved in designing and erecting speculative housing judging from his property transactions. Robert Mills also bought city lots, improved them and then sold them for a profit, presumably financing as well as designing pedestrian brick rowhouses. Several prolific Victorian era architects either served as their own developers--as did Thomas Franklin Schneider--or worked for businessmen who financed large house building ventures; Adolf Cluss designed many rows of houses for Alexander R. Shepherd, prominent Washington developer as well as political figure. Many of the city's current firms of real estate brokers, as Shannon and Luchs, began as developers, acting as financial intermediaries between contractors, architects, and clients. Washington neighborhoods as desireable and diverse as Kalorama, Cleveland Park, Spring Valley, and paper, American University Park were largely developed as real estate ventures. The Prints and Photographs Washingtoniana architectural collections contain the most comprehensive materials for study of the role local architects played in the real estate industry, particularly its twentieth-century growth.

Questions as diverse as overall development objectives to on criticism contemporary building materials and methods can be examined in detail using the Waggaman and Ray, Wood, Heaton, and Drayer archives. Two aspects of the cover ms mrs, city's domestic architectural history greatly facilitated by the existence of such extensive drawing collections are the evolution of designs due to architect-client consultations and on criticism, the study of interiors. When architects maintain excellent records, as Waggaman and Ray did, surviving drawings of alternate designs presented to clients allow scholars to ask and perhaps answer questions about taste, the gcse no coursework, arrival and acceptance of new domestic amenities, and even attitudes about how to shelter automobiles. Twentieth-century societal and technological changes have effected housing design to a greater or lesser degree. Garages, TV and media rooms, swimming pools and related structures, increasingly sybaritic bathrooms, solariums and spas, modern kitchen appliances, even rug and fur coolers (ADE - UNIT 42, no. 39 E size), have had to be accommodated in of pope houses of traditional as well as contemporary design. Access to most Washington interiors is difficult for essays by peter, scholars and many have been radically changed with original planning and of pope, decoration obliterated. As photographs present a limited perspective, surviving drawings offer the best vehicle to examine many aspects (color excluded) of their historical development. Washington was a local proving ground for government-sponsored low-to-median-income suburban housing developments.

Those modelled on socially and architecturally progressive prototypes that began in Europe, as the cover, town of of pope essay, Greenbelt, Maryland, have been frequently studied, while the ones like Arthur B. Heaton's traditionally-inspired Union Homes, also for Greenbelt, have been of less interest to scholars until recently. Heaton designed the cover ms mrs, Union Homes in the 1940s for the Office of War Information as temporary houses, but their forms, details, and amenities are similar to much of the inexpensive catalogue and of pope essay on criticism, factory-built housing of the era. Comparisons within the typology between those inspired by European and those by American prototypes is a worthwhile study that could be undertaken utilizing the Library's collections alone. Which have endured the longest with the least amount of change and why? The outward appearance of lower, and essays by peter, even medium, cost houses undertaken by private developers is often not markedly different from public housing units; the differences lie within (see for example, Mihran Mesrobian's designs in 1932 for summary, the D.C. Developing Company (ADE - UNIT 2216), where architects consciously provided better creature comforts. Arthur B. Heaton, architect.

Night study, house for the Misses McEwen, 3324 Newark Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. On Guernica. Perspective rendering. Graphite and summary of pope, watercolor on paper. By Peter Widdowson. 1906. Summary Essay On Criticism. ADE - UNIT 1050, no. 1 (A size). Heaton's picturesquely composed Charles F. Denley House of 1927 has Colonial Revival clothing (ADE - UNIT 515), but a free-flowing, open interior comparable to a Frank Lloyd Wright house. Gcse No Coursework. His McEwen House of 1906 (ADE UNIT - 1050), located at 3324 Newark Street in summary essay Washington's Cleveland Park neighborhood, is widdowson, recorded by a rare nighttime watercolor view (pl. 10.12). For the Clay Coss House of 1936 (ADE - UNIT 1039) in on criticism the Spring Valley neighborhood, Heaton attached the on guernica, garage directly to the kitchen, a portent of summary of pope on criticism, future accommodations for the automobile.

Heaton's Corby House (ADE - UNITS 528 to 538), Ishpiming, erected in an exclusive part of Chevy Chase, Maryland, offered him an opportunity to design a formal informal house on a grand scale (ADE - UNIT 536, no. 30 E size). Pattern-book houses are one of America's most venerable architectural traditions, apparently beginning in the early eighteenth-century with imported illustrated treatises but still viable today. Fundamental to this practice was the very real possiblity of designing (and perhaps building) one's own home. In 1921 the essay on guernica, Own a Home Exposition Company with offices in Chicago and New York sponsored a competition entitled Own Your Home Competition, in summary which architects were invited to provide designs for gcse, modest suburban homes in four categories established according to materials. Summary. Washington architect Louis Justement won first prizes for his four-room frame Colonial cottage as well as his house constructed with metal lath, back plaster and stucco (ADE - UNIT 2879, no 17 A size).

His entry for a six-room stucco cottage earned a mention, but his brick house did not place. Justement's designs as well as many other competitors were copyrighted and seem to have formed the basis for a series of catalogue or factory-built houses destined for middle-class developments. Washington had at least one mail-order house design business. Article Magazine Newspaper Research Story Write. Standard Homes Company published a series of books of designs from the 1920s through the 1950s, including editions of the Plan Book of Modern American Homes (1921; NA7127.S777), 101 American Homes (1921: NA7127.S755), Better Homes at Lower Cost (1926-30, NA7127.S775), Homes of Comfort at Low Cost, Homes of Today (ca. 1929, NA7127.S777), Homes of Brick and Stucco (ca. 1929; NA7127.S7764), and essay, Standard Construction Details for Home Builders (ca. 1950, TH151.S66). Essay On Guernica. Daniel Theodor Morgan (b. 1901) began working for Standard Homes in November 1921 and seems to have spent his entire career there.

Morgan, with a formal education through the of pope essay on criticism, ninth grade, and on guernica, a few classes in structural design at George Washington University in 1943 a job requirement for the war effort, was registered an an architect in Washington in 1951. Summary Of Pope On Criticism. Standard Home Company's low to medium cost house designs fit into the comfortable genre of essay, standardized designs offering a variety of period houses, most of which were variants of the popular Colonial Revival. By 1930 they began offering customized designs. (LC TH151.S66 and NA7127.S766 n. 7). Hugh Newell Jacobsen, architect. Residence for Dr. and Mrs. James L. Kahn,” Lima, Ohio. Axonometric projection. Ink and graphite on acetate drafting film. 1981-1982. ADE - UNIT 2613, no.

21 (F size). . The Prints and Photograph Division's twentieth-century architectural drawings are predominantly of historicist house designs because the vast majority of Washington and Washington-area houses are traditional. Not surprisingly the work of the city's premier modernist architect of the late 20th century, Hugh Newell Jacobsen, is fundamentally conservative in its essential tastefulness. Jacobsen's international reputation rests perhaps more on his series of summary of pope essay on criticism, beautiful houses, many in essay and near Washington, as on his public commissions. He approached each of summary on criticism, his residential designs as an individual problem of food thesis, site conditions, client lifestyle, and appropriate historical precedent; each is an example of consummate artistry where sensitive and sensible design are realized through superb building craftsmanship. Jacobsen's definition of houses as series of interconnected rooms with clear external volumetric expressions--a unit approach which he terms pavilions--also includes historical contextualism, as each is a fresh contemporary expression of an earlier American house type. Mansard roofs and summary of pope essay on criticism, bay windows of the James Newmyer House (ADE - UNIT 2609) of 1966 reflect not just forms associated with Victorian styles in Washington, but also their materials, high basements, and ordered asymmetry. At the same time, while Jacobsen's contemporaneous Trentman House (ADE - UNIT 2608) responds sensitively to its Georgetown streetscape, it is avowedly and food thesis, unashamedly modern.

By retaining but reordering and abstracting their essential geometries, Jacobsen's transformations of American rural farm house, updated in the Bryan House of 1987 in the Worthington Valley, Maryland (ADE - UNIT 2607) and vernacular forms such as the Cape Cod house redux in the John Drier House of 1977 in northwest Washington (ADE - UNIT 2602), or the modified board-and-batten vocabulary of his Kahn House in Lima, Ohio, of 1982, has transferred, without sentimental claptrap, their essential hominess into exciting contemporary idioms.23. While Jacobsen's work exemplifies a basically sensual approach to contemporary house design, a cerebral strategy is represented in the Library's collections by drawings of educator-architect Cesar Pelli. Tracking the gradual transformation of summary of pope essay on criticism, Pelli's conceptual sketches of suburban house projects exhibited at the Venice Biennale (ADE - UNIT 2370) in 1976, through their intermediate stage as the Long Gallery House design (ADE - UNIT 2373) offered for sale in 1980, to its concrete realization as the Maryland House (ADE - UNIT 2374) erected in 1985-1989 in suburban Montgomery County, is to essay undertake with the architect a journey of self-conscious historical inquiry. Of Pope Essay On Criticism. The recent interest among architects and the public at large in architectural history has led many contemporary architects to food thesis realize that their own place in history can only be correctly understood if drawings recording their complete design cycle are preserved intact. If published, as in Pelli's case, these drawings participate in summary of pope essay the profession's ongoing theoretical-historical dialogue, influencing as well as having been influenced.24. In 1976 Pelli's interest was axial primacy in architecture and the intersection of solid and transparent, of rectilinear (manmade, or architecture) and curvilinear (nature-made). By 1980 a long glazed gallery as a central spine supporting alternating house units and landscape segments had emerged. The idea of a house's circulation route becoming its central public space is an ancient one with echos in the American Georgian or Anglo-Palladian central hall plan house. Of Research. It is entirely appropriate that the Gewirz House with its simple geometric forms and strong colors was built in on criticism suburban Washington, a fitting accompaniment to letter ms mrs the area's long tradition of historically connected houses in concert with nature. The essentially conservative nature of the majority of Washington houses is rooted in the strong sense of American history that has always pervaded the summary essay on criticism, city.

The predominant style remains that of the city's founding era, permutations on the so-called American Colonial house. For at least the last two centuries a recurring theme for many American architects has been how to widdowson transform European historical prototypes to convey images that bespoke America. The issue was not just how to respond to different climatic and social conditions, but how to express contemporary perceptions of what the summary, American house should look like. Although seventeenth and eighteenth century America was dotted with buildings representative of the colonists differing national traditions, from French Mississippi Valley poteaux-en-terre houses to Dutch stepped-gable brick rows in New York, Georgian houses from the English colonies emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as the gcse no coursework, image of the generic American house. The strength of the English Colonial tradition in Washington can partially be linked to on criticism the city's function as the national capital and partially to its location in the mid-Atlantic region. Sentimental or patriotic nostalgia about the Revolutionary era, the crucial roles played by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison (all owners of role of research paper, near-by English Colonial houses) in the city's founding, identification by many local residents (particularly government employees) with American values, near-by sites of important Colonial houses, including Williamsburg and of pope essay on criticism, Annapolis: all have contributed to the sense among many twentieth-century Washingtonians that the archtypal Washington house should express American more strongly than elsewhere. Holdings Outside the Library of Congress. Many institutions have individual drawings or small collections relating to Washington houses. Nicholas King's 1798 drawing for Edward Langley's house on South Capitol Street is in the Joseph Downs Manuscript Collection of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. R. Snowdon Andrew's perspective watercolor of the George Riggs House (1856) at gcse 1617 I Street near Farragut Square is in the John Beverly Riggs Collection in Wilmington, Delaware.

William Lovering's drawing for the Six Buildings on Pennsylvania Avenue, Thomas U. Walter's drawings for his own house and that for Alexander Ray, and summary of pope, Paul Cret's drawings for the Mary Stewart residence are in the Athenaeum of Philadelphia. The records of the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company, both preserved in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, frequently include plans, and occasionally elevation drawings, of food thesis, Washington houses insured with them between the 1820s and of pope, 1890s.25. The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, has a George Hadfield drawing dated 1798 for an unidentified house, Carrère and Hastings drawings for article research story, the William R. Castle (1929-1931) and David A. Reed (1929-1930) houses, Charles A. Platt's drawings for the James Parmelee House (1912-1914), Ogden Codman's drawings for the Martha Codman House (1908-1910), Hoppin Koen's George B. McClellan House (1922), and summary of pope essay on criticism, an unidentified house at 34th and essay, O Streets NW (1939) by William Muschenheim. Montgomery C. Meigs's drawings for of pope essay on criticism, his own house on K Street and those by essay, McKim, Mead, and White for several Washington houses are in summary the New York Historical Society; Meigs' sketches for many Washington houses are among his papers in the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. The Berla Abel, Edward W. Donn, Jr., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Keyes, Condon Florence, and Chloethiel Woodward Smith collections in the Archives of the letter, American Institute of summary of pope essay on criticism, Architects Archive all contain substantial materials relating to Washington's domestic architecture. 1 . Significant early books on Washington's domestic architecture include Mary S. Lockwood, Historic Homes of Washington (New York: Belford Co., 1889); Deering Davis, et. al., Georgetown Houses of the Federal Period (New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1944); and Harold D. Eberlein and Cortlandt V. D. Hubbard, Historic Houses of Georgetown and Washington City (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1958). Recent scholarship includes Georgetown Residential Architecture-Northeast (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts and Historic American Buildings Survey, [1968]; Commission of Fine Arts, Massachusetts Avenue Architecture . 2 vols. Article Research Story Writing. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973-1975); Sue A. Kohler and Jeffrey R. Carson. Sixteenth Street Architecture . 2 vols. (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1978-88); and Kathryn Schneider Smith, ed. Washington at Home (Washington: Columbia Historical Society, 1988).

Numerous destroyed Washington houses are illustrated and summary essay on criticism, discussed by role of research paper, James M. Goode, Capital Losses. A Cultural History of Washington's Destroyed Buildings (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979) 3-158. back to of pope text. 2 Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, Plans and cover letter, Sections of the Proposed Continuation of the Washington Canal from Rock Creek to the Little Falls of the Potomac, Washington, D. Of Pope On Criticism. C., G3852 .W28 .G45 s07 .L3 Vault. Robert King's drawings are in magazine newspaper writing the Cartographic and Architectural Archives, National Archives. back to text. 3 Nancy B. Schwartz, comp. Historic American Buildings Survey. District of on criticism, Columbia Catalog . (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974).

Several Washington houses have been documented by feature newspaper research writing, HABS since 1974; consult records in the Prints and Photographs Division. back to text. 4 Alison K. Hoagland. Nineteenth-Century Building Regulations in Washington, D.C. Records of the Columbia Historical Society 52 (1989) 57-77. Summary Of Pope Essay On Criticism. back to text. 5 Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser , 21 May 1793: 3. back to feature story write text. 6 Allen C. Clark, Daniel Carroll of summary on criticism, Duddington, Records of the Columbia Historical Society 39 (1938): 22-3; the 1796 drawing for food thesis, the Seven Buildings, rowhouses erected by a consortium of developers, is in the Athenaeum of Philadelpia. back to of pope text. 7 Hadfield's drawing located at the Avery Architectural Library, Columbia University, was identified by feature magazine story write, its cataloger as Commodore Porter's House on of pope Meridian Hill on no internal evidence. Hadfield's former student William Parker Eliot bought his drawings at an Orphan's Court auction of Hadfield's property on 16 February 1826; the essay, location of Eliot's papers is unknown. On Criticism. National Archives, R.G.

21. back to text. 8 Daniel Reiff, Washington Architecture 1791-1861 (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1971): 70. William Strickland, H.R. 267, 28th Congress, 1st Session. [T]he American plan of putting windows in the blank space of the frieze. . . . is widdowson, purely an American improvement in the art of summary of pope essay, building, to get rid of a blank space which has always given a heavy appearance to the attic. Strickland was mistaken; the article feature magazine newspaper story, window metope was used during the essay on criticism, Italian Renaissance, one example being the essay on guernica, Villa Madama.

Eighteenth century English and French examples abound. back to summary of pope text. 9 A.J. Davis Collection, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. back to text. 10 Orlando Rideout V., Building the Octagon (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1989); Melissa McLoud, Craftsmen and Entrepreneurs. Builders in Late Nineteenth-Century Washington, D. Article Newspaper Research Story Writing. C., Ph. D. thesis, George Washington University, 1988; District of Columbia Building permits began to be issued in 1877; those for on criticism, houses (the vast majority of permits) sometimes include blueprints, plans, or especially plans for essays by peter widdowson, projections (which were technically over public land); Paul Kelsey Williams' house histories, done for private clients, are on deposit in the library of the Historical Society of Washington, D. C. back to text. 11 See John W. Reps, Views and summary of pope, Viewmakers of Urban America (Columbia: University of letter, Missouri Press, 1984) and Reps, Washington on View. The Nation's Capital Since 1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). back to text. 12 The Hyde de Neuville collection of watercolors are in the New York Historical Society. back to text. 13 The Köllner and Smith collections are in of pope essay the Prints and Photographs Division; Meigs's drawings and sketches are scattered between the National Archives, Library of Congress, and Historical Society of Washington. back to text. 15 Jeffrey A. Cohen, Building a Discipline: Early Institutional Settings for Architectural Education in Philadelphia, 1804-1890, Journal of the cover ms mrs, Society of Architectural Historians , 53 (June 1994): 139-183. back to text.

16 See Tanya Beauchamp, Adolph Cluss and the Building of the U. Summary Of Pope. S. National Museum. Food Thesis. An Architecture of Perfect Adaptability. M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1972; Margaret Gordon Davis, James G. Hill, Victorian Architect, Washington, D.C. M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1981. Candace Reed's extensive research on Schneider is summary of pope, unpublished. [Thomas Franklin Schneider], Selections from the Work of T. F. Schneider, Architect, Washington, D.C. Essays By Peter. (Washington: Privately Printed, 1894). back to text.

17 Starkweather's corpus of drawings are in a private collection in Philadelphia. Camden is discussed and illustrated in Mills Lane, Architecture of the Old South. Summary. Virginia (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984): 223-5. A full set of elevations and a perspective, in no coursework the possession of of pope on criticism, Camden's owners, Mr. Cover Letter Ms Mrs. Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, are illustrated in William B. O'Neal, Architectural Drawing in Virginia, 1819-1969 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia School of summary on criticism, Architecture, 1969): 76-9. Food Thesis. back to summary of pope text. 18 Harvey L. Page, Houses of Moderate Cost (Washington: Gibson Bros., 1889). back to text.

19 The Marlatt house drawings are discussed and ms mrs, illustrated in Sue A. Kohler and summary on criticism, Jeffrey R. Carson, Sixteenth Street Architecture (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1988) II: 332-363; George E. Thomas, William L. Price: Arts and Crafts to gcse no coursework Modern Modern Design (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000). back to text. 20 Anne E. Summary Essay. Peterson, Hornblower Marshall, Architects (Washington: Preservation Press, 1978) includes a catalogue of the firm's works. Much of the no coursework, work of de Sibour, Totten, and Wyeth is summary of pope, presented in the four volumes on Massachusetts Avenue and Sixteenth Street compiled by food thesis, the Commission of Fine Arts ( see note 1) . back to text. 21 William Brian Bushong, Glenn Brown, the American Institute of Architects, and the Development of the Civic Core of Washington, D.C. Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1988; Glenn Brown, Domestic Architecture in Washington City, Engineering Magazine (January 1896): 434-460. Richardson's drawings for his Washington houses are located at Harvard University. James F. O'Gorman, Selected Drawings. H.H. Richardson and His Office (Cambridge: Harvard College Library, 1974). back to text. 22 Charles Moore to summary of pope essay on criticism Senator Simeon D. Magazine Newspaper Story Write Writing. Fess, Vice Chairman, George Washington Bicentennial Commission, Report of the Commission of summary on criticism, Fine Arts (1936), 74th Congress, 2d sess., S. Document No.

214, 70-71. back to text. 23 Kevin W. Green, ed., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Architect (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1988). back to text. 24 Mario Gandelsonas and John Pastier, Cesar Pelli. Buildings and essays, Projects, 1965-1990 (New York: Rizzoli, 1990): 252-63. back to text. 25 A detailed finding aid to the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company records is currently being prepared. back to text.

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Summary an essay on criticism by Alexander pope

alan willner resume National University of summary of pope essay on criticism, Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583. Tel: 65-6515-3590 Fax: 65-6779-1103. ? 14 years of research on photonics, including: diffractive optical devices, integrated micro/nano optical devices, optical interconnects, fiber-optical devices and subsystems, optical sensors, and high-speed WDM optical communication systems and networks. English Gcse No Coursework! ? Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Southern California, USA, 2005. Summary Of Pope Essay! Dissertation: #8220;Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects in High-Speed Reconfigurable WDM Optical Fiber Communication Systems#8221; (Advisor: Dr. Alan E. Willner) ? Master of Science in Electrical Computer Engineering, Univ. of Miami, USA, 1999. Thesis: #8220;Flat-Top and Non-Diffracting Beam Shaping Using Phase-Only Diffractive Optical Elements#8221; ? Bachelor of Science in Applied Physics and Bachelor of Economics in Enterprise Management, Tsinghua Univ., China, 1997. Thesis: #8220;Excitons in Quantum Dot of II-VI Semiconductor#8221; ? Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore ( Assistant professor , 12/2005-present) ? A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research ( 25% Joint Staff , 12/2005-present) ? NEC Labs America ( Visiting researcher , 9/2005-12/2005) ? Optical Communications Lab, Dept. of essay on guernica, Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/2000-8/2005) ? Electro-Optics Micro-Devices Lab, Dept. of summary of pope, Electrical Computer Engineering, University of newspaper research writing, Miami ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/1997-5/2000) RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (2006-present, with supporting fund over 2 million Singapore dollars; 1 Singapore dollar=0.8 US dollar)

? Application of photonic integrated circuits in optical communication networks (PI, NUS Research Institute at Suzhou, 2011. ? OPM for Smart Optical Networks based on RF Analysis with Optical Filtering (PI, MOE AcRF, 2011. ? The applications of digital signal processing in 100-Gbit/s coherent optical communication systems (PI, A*STAR SERC PSF, 2009. ? General research on fiber optics and optical communications (PI, Gift Donation from NEC Labs America, 2009) ? Autocorrelator for optical pulses based on measurement of polarization effects (PI, MOE AcRF, 2007. Essay On Criticism! ? Multi-channel wavelength-tunable short pulses generation in ultra high-speed optical systems (PI, MOE AcRF, 2006. Essays By Peter! ? Visible light communications (Co-PI, A*STAR HOME2015, 2010. ? Small-footprint semiconductor optical transmitter for RZ transmission systems (Co-PI, MOE AcRF, 2008. ? Fabrication and testing of fiber optic hydrophones and arrays (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2007. ? Distributed temperature and strain sensor (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2006. PREVIOUS RESEARCH PROJECTS (1997-2005): ? High-special-efficiency DWDM optical fiber transmission systems (2005) ? Tunable delay line based on slow light in fiber (2004. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! ? Realization and application of high speed all-optical logic gates, all-optical wavelength conversion and optical parametric amplification by fiber nonlinear effects (2002. ? High speed short pulse train generation using phase modulator and PM fiber (2004. ? Supercontinuum generation and multicasting in optical WDM networks (2004) ? Extending the transmission distance of directly modulated DFB laser system (2004) ? Monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in high speed WDM optical fiber transmission systems (2000. ? Development of Labview-based beam profiler (1999. ? Fabrication of holographic devices on ion-exchanged photo-chromic glass for optical interconnects and optical storage (1999. ? High density nondiffracting beam array for optical interconnection (1997. ? Fabrication of waveguide on HEBS glass by gcse, laser-writing assisted etching technique for chip-to-chip optical interconnects (1997. ? Flat-top beam shaper fabricated by a non-lithographic technique (1997. ? EE4114 #8220;Optical Communications#8221; (2010. ? EE3407 #8220;Analog Electronics#8221; (2007. ? ESP1104 #8220;Introduction to summary essay, Electronic Systems#8221; (2007. Essays Widdowson! ? EE3208 #8220;Embedded Computer Systems Design#8221; (2006) ? Research students supervised: ? Currently supervising 5 Ph.D. students (HU Junhao, ZHANG Hongyu, CAO Shengjiao, XU Zhuoran, YU Yi), and 1 M.Sc. student (Prasanna Caliaperoumal) ? Graduated Ph.D. students: ZHANG Shaoliang, #8220;Coherent phase-modulated optical fiber communications with linear and nonlinear phase noise,#8221; 01/2011. YANG Jing, #8220;Fiber physical efforts in high-speed optical communication networks and fiber sensor systems,#8221; 08/2010. ? Graduated M.Sc. students: Raju Gottumukkala, #8220;Dispersion monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering in high-speed optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2010. YU Yi, #8220;Filtering effects in on criticism, high-speed differential phase-shift keying optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2009. HAN Xue, #8220;Comparison of letter ms mrs, modulation formats in 42.8-Gbit/s WDM fiber-optic communication systems,#8221; 05/2009. LI Xiaojing, #8220;Pilot-aided maximum likehood phase estimation in optical M -ary phase-shift keying system,#8221; 12/2008.

? Graduated FYP students: REN Shirui, #8220;Receiver design of white LED wireless communication system,#8221; 05/2011. TAN Hou Hock, #8220;White LED lighting and of pope essay visible light communication transmitter,#8221; 05/2011. LIM Yu Ting, #8220;A visible light communication system enabled by power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. LI Yuanfeng, #8220;Visible light communication transmitter based on white LED,#8221; 05/2011. LU Huan Xun, #8220;A visible light communication system using LED with power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. Role! XU Fang, #8220;Optical performance monitoring in high-speed fiber communication systems,#8221; 05/2011. YANG Kai, #8220;Investigation of transmission distance improvement over standard single-mode fiber for 10-Gb/s chirped directly-modulated system,#8221; 05/2010. CHEE Kang Wei, #8220;PMD monitoring for essay high-speed optical communication systems based on power measurement of essays by peter, RF tone,#8221; 05/2009.

V. M. Ramkumar, #8220;Investigation of polymer optical fiber for high data rate and short range communication,#8221; 05/2008. XING Rui, #8220;Quantum-dots based biosensor project development of a graphic interface as part of the software package for the urine analysis device,#8221; 05/2008. ? Member, Optical Society of America (OSA) ? Member, IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE/PS) ? Founding secretary and committee member, OSA Singapore Chapter (2010. ? Student activity chair and committee member, IEEE Singapore Section (2011. ? Committee member, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2007. ? Supervisor, the summary essay on criticism, Student Branch of IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2009. ? Chair, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2010, won Best Chapter Award from IEEE Singapore Session, and Largest Membership Increase Chapter Award from IEEE/PS) ? Co-chair, Working Group 1 (WG1) of Telecommunications Standards Technical Committee (TSTC) for letter ms mrs Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore: to define the standards of the physical layer for the next generation broadband network in Singapore (2009. ? Technical program committee member, 10th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2011. Summary On Criticism! ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, IEEE SENSORS Conference 2011. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Instrument and Technology (OIT) 2011. Letter Ms Mrs! ? Technical program co-chair, International Conference on Information Photonics Optical Communications (IPOC) 2011. ? Publicity chair and summary of pope technical program member, IEEE Topical Meeting on essay on guernica Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2011. ? Invited speaker on #8220;High Speed Optical Fiber Communications#8221;, Discover Optics 2011, an educational event for of pope essay on criticism students from junior colleges, jointly organized by OSA Singapore Chapter and cover IEEE/PS Chapter. Essay! ? Local arrangement chair and symposium co-chair on optical communication and networks, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st Postgraduate Student Conference (PGSC) 2010. On Guernica! ? Technical program co-chair, 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010. Summary Of Pope! ? Conference co-chair on optical transmission, 9th International Conference on newspaper research Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010. ? Judge, Junior Talent Development Program, Singapore, 2010. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Communication Systems (OPTICS) 2010. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! ? Technical program committee member, 7th IEEE VTS Asia Pacific Wireless Communications Symposium (APWCS) 2010. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st IEEE/PS Singapore chapter Best Student Paper Award Competition (BSPA) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and cover ms mrs Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Optical Communications and on criticism Networks (ICOCN) 2009. ? Co-chair of Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 11th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2008. ? Organizing committee member and technical program committee member, 7th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2008. ? Organizing committee member and technical program committee member, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008. ? Section chair, 6th International Conference on food thesis Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, 10th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2006. Of Pope Essay! ? Vice president, Friendship Club of China in University of Miami, 1997-1999.

? Reviewer for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, IEEE Transaction on Communications, IEEE Journal of feature newspaper research, Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Optics Letters, Optics Express, Optics Communications, Optics Engineering, IEE Electronics Letters, Journal of Computer Communications, and a few international conferences. Summary Of Pope Essay! ? Shaoliang Zhang (Ph.D. student), IEEE Photonics Society Graduate Student Fellowship Award 2010 (10 winners from all over the world), which is a top honor for the graduate students in IEEE Photonics Society, reported in the IEEE Photonics Society website and also the english no coursework, IEEE Photonics Society newsletters. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. Essay! student), Best Student Paper Award (for the paper #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for different modulation formats based on RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter#8221; co-authored by J. Gcse No Coursework! Yang, K.W.L. Chee, and C. Yu), 7th International Conference on summary of pope on criticism Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Macau, December 8-10, 2009. ? Junhao Hu (Ph.D. student), Best Student Presentation Award Honorable Mention (for the paper #8220;Long distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on Erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification#8221; co-authored by J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Cover Ms Mrs! Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu), Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009, Shanghai, November 2-6, 2009. Of Pope On Criticism! ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. On Guernica! student), Certificate of Merits (for the paper #8220;Multi-channel 80-GHz pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu, Y.K. Yeo, and essay on criticism Y. Essay! Wang), OptoElectronics and summary of pope essay Communications Conference (OECC) 2009, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. ? Best Paper Award (for the paper #8220;Polarization Insensitivity Optic Distributed Strain Sensing System Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering#8221; co-authored by essays by peter widdowson, J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Summary Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang), Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), the 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. ? Marquis #8220;Who#8217;s Who in the world#8221;, 2009. Essay! ? Academic Achievement Award, Univ. of Southern California, 2005. ? IEEE/LEOS (now IEEE Photonics Society) Graduate Student Fellowship Award, 2004 (12 winners from all over the world) ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of Southern California, 2000- 2005. ? Award of Academic Merit, Graduate School of Univ. of essay, Miami, 1999. ? #8220;Who#8217;s Who Among Students in American Universities and Colleges#8221;, 1999. ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of Miami, 1997- 2000. Essay! ? Outstanding Student Scholarship, Tsinghua Univ., 1992-1996. ? U.S. Pat. # 6,646,774 (Co-inventors: Z. Pan, Y. Wang, T. Luo, A.B. Summary Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. Willner), #8220;Intra-bit polarization diversity modulation for PMD mitigation,#8221; Issued on November 11, 2003. Food Thesis! PUBLICATIONS (with over 400 citations, h-index=11): 1. C. Summary On Criticism! Yu , #8220;Polarization mode dispersion monitoring,#8221; Optical Performance Monitoring: Advanced Techniques for Next-Generation Photonic Networks , Calvin C. K. Chan, editor, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2010, ISBN: 978-0123749505.

2. A.E. Essays! Willner, C. Yu , Z. Summary! Pan, and Y. Xie, #8220;WDM fiber optic communication networks,#8221; Handbook of no coursework, Optics , 3 rd Edition, Vol. V, M. Bass, C.M. DeCusatis, J.M. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V.N. Mahajan, E. Van Stryland, editors, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2009, ISBN: 978-0071633130.

3. A.E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu , #8220;Optical performance monitoring,#8221; Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB , Ivan P. Kaminow, Tingye Li, and Alan E. Willner, editors, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2008, ISBN: 978-0123741721. 4. C. Yu , #8220;Comparison of advanced modulation formats for 40-Gbit/s DWDM optical fiber transmission systems with 50-GHz channel spacing,#8221; Advanced Technologies for by peter High-Speed Optical Communications , Lei Xu, editor, Research Signpost, 2007, ISBN: 813080171X. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! 5. J. Yang, C. Yu , Y. Yang, L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y.

Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;PMD-insensitive CD monitoring based on RF clock power ratio measurement with optical notch filter,#8221; accepted by paper, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 6. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Z. Wang, C. Yu , W. By Peter Widdowson! Zhong, and J. Summary Essay! Chen, #8220;Performance Improvement by Tilting Receiver Plane in M-QAM OFDM Visible Light Communications,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1341813427, July 2011. 7. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P.Y. Kam, C. Magazine Newspaper Research Write Writing! Yu , J. Chen, and T. Wang, #8220;A performance investigation of adaptive phase estimations in coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 23, no.

8, pp. 462 - 464, April 2011. 8. B. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Hao, and C. Yu , #8220;Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,#8221; Applied Optics , vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1442-1445, March 2011. 9. Summary Essay! J. Essays By Peter Widdowson! Yang, C. Yu , L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A.P.T.

Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD-insensitive PMD monitoring based on RF power measurement,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1354-1359, January 2011. Summary Of Pope Essay! 10. J. By Peter Widdowson! Hu, and C. Yu , #8220;Low power autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 283, no. 24, pp. 4928-4932, December 2010.

11. Of Pope Essay! T.S.R. Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Simultaneous and independent multi-parameter monitoring with fault localization for DSP-based coherent communication systems,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 23, pp. 23608-23619, November 2010.

12. J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km Long Distance Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System Based on Erbium Doped Fiber and letter Raman Amplification,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. Summary Essay! 22, no. 19, pp. English! 1422 - 1424, October 2010. 13. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and of pope essay J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

28, no. 11, pp. Essays By Peter Widdowson! 1597 1607, June 2010. 14. Z. Li, C. Yu , Y. Dong, L. Cheng, L.F.K. Lui, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Linear photonic radio frequency phase shifter using a differential-group-delay element and an optical phase modulator,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 35, pp.

1881-1883, May 2010. Summary Of Pope Essay! 15. S. Letter Ms Mrs! Zhang, P. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Newspaper Write! Chen, #8220;Bit-error rate performance of coherent optical M -ary PSK and 16-QAM using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! 12088 12103, May 2010.

16. S. Zhang, L. Of Research! Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Dual-stage cascaded frequency offset estimation for digital coherent receivers,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 401-403, March 2010. 17. S. Zhang, X. Li, P. Y. Of Pope On Criticism! Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Pilot-assisted, decision-aided, maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical phase-modulated systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. Food Thesis! 22, no.

6, pp. Summary Essay! 380-382, March 2010. 19. Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, C. Yu , H.-Y. Essays By Peter Widdowson! Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of essay, 100Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of food thesis, delay tap sampling,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, pp. 3149-3157, February 2010.

20. Z. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Pan, C. Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,#8221; Optical Fiber Technology , vol. 16, pp. 20-45, January 2010.

21. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, and cover J. Of Pope Essay! Chen, #8220;Parallel implementation of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent M-ary phase-shift keying systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. 1471-1473, October 2009. 22. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Food Thesis! Chen, #8220;Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. Summary Of Pope Essay! 21, pp. 1075-1077, August 2009. 23.

C. Yu , Y. Wang, Z. Article Feature Newspaper Story! Pan, T. Summary! Luo, S. Kumar, B. Zhang, and food thesis A.E. Willner, #8220;Carrier-suppressed 160-GHz pulse-train generation using a 40-GHz phase modulator with polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 34, pp. 1657-1659, June 2009. 24. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng and X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; Electronics Letters , vol. 45, pp. 154-156, January 2009.

25. S. Zhang, P.Y. Of Pope On Criticism! Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood detection in coherent optical phase-shift-keying system,#8221; Optics Express , vol. English No Coursework! 17, pp. 703-715, January 2009. 26.

G.J. Pendock, X. Yi, C. Of Pope! Yu , and feature magazine research write writing W. Shieh, #8220;Dispersion-monitoring in WDM systems by injecting modulated ASE,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 20, pp. Summary Of Pope! 821 - 823, May 2008. 27. L. Zhang, T. No Coursework! Luo Y. Yue, C. Of Pope On Criticism! Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Photosensitivity-enabled dispersion controllability for quasi-phase-matching in essay on guernica, photonic crystal fibers,#8221; Optics Letters , vol.

32, pp. 3498-3500, December 2007. 28. L. Zhang, T. Luo, C. Yu , W. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Pattern dependence of data distortion in slow-light elements,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of summary, Lightwave Technology , vol. 25, pp. 1754-1760, July 2007. 29.

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and food thesis C. Yu , #8220;Ultrahigh-speed optical pulse generation using a phase modulator and two stages of delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 46, Paper 075001, pp. 1-3, July 2007. 30. Y. On Criticism! Wang, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, A.E. Role Of Research! Willner, R. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, Y. Okawachi, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, #8220;44-ns continuously-tunable dispersionless optical delay element using a PPLN waveguide with a two pump configuration, DCF, and a dispersion compensator,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

19, pp. 861-863, June 2007. 31. C. Yu , Z. Pan, T. Article Magazine Newspaper Research Story! Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and of pope essay on criticism A.E. Willner, #8220;Beyond 40-GHz return-to-zero optical pulse train generation using a phase modulator and polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 19, pp.

42-44, January 2007. On Guernica! 32. C. Yu , T. Luo, L. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Data pulse distortion induced by a slow light tunable delay line in optical fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 32, pp.

20-22, January 2007. 33. C. Yu , T. Luo, B. Zhang, Z. Pan, M. Adler, Y. Wang, J.E. On Criticism! McGeehan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Wavelength-shift-free 3R regenerator for 40-Gbit/s RZ system by feature newspaper research write, optical parametric amplification in fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 2569-2571, December 2006. Summary Essay On Criticism! 34. T. Luo, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, S. Kumar, Z. Cover! Pan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Simple autocorrelation technique based on degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. 1606 - 1608, August 2006. 35. L.-S.

Yan, X.S. Yao, C. Yu , Y. Wang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;High-speed and highly repeatable polarization-state analyzer for 40-Gb/s system performance monitoring,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. 643 - 645, February 2006. Summary Essay On Criticism! 36. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, J.E. McGeehan, M. Adler, and A.E. Willner , #8220;All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring of a 40-Gb/s RZ signal by measuring the XPM-generated optical tone power in a highly nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 430 - 432, January 2006. 37. L. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu , T. Cover! Luo, and A.E. Willner, #8220;PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of on criticism, Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp. On Guernica! 3558 - 3565, November 2005. 38. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Arieli, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Dispersive effects monitoring for RZ data by adding a frequency-shifted carrier along the of pope on criticism, orthogonal polarization state,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp.

3295 - 3301, October 2005. 39. Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, Z. Essay! Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

23, pp. 3331 - 3338, October 2005. 40. L.-S. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Zhang, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, L. Paraschis, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Reach extension in 10-Gb/s directly modulated transmission systems using asymmetric and narrowband optical filtering,#8221; Optics Express , vol. On Criticism! 13, pp. 5106-5115, June 2005. 41. Magazine Writing! L.-S.

Yan, C. Yu , Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, and A.E. Willner, #8220;40-Gbit/s transmission over 25-km of negative-dispersion fiber using narrowband filtering of a commercial directly modulated DFB laser,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. Of Pope On Criticism! 1322-1324, June 2005. On Guernica! 42. C. Yu , L. Summary Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Christen, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;All-optical XOR gate using polarization rotation in single highlynonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 1232-1234, June 2005. 43.

C. No Coursework! Yu , L.-S. Summary Essay! Yan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Width-tunable optical RZ pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly-nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. Gcse! 636-638, March 2005. 44. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , Y. Wang, and summary on criticism A.E.

Willner, #8220;Using sampled nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg gratings to achieve 40-Gbit/s tunable multi-channel dispersion compensation,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 241, pp. 371-375, November 2004. 45. C. Yu , Z. Widdowson! Pan, Y. Wang, Y.W.

Song, D. Gurkan, M.C. Hauer, D. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Starodubov and A.E. Willner, #8220;Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using dispersion-shifted fiber with a fiber Bragg grating and a Faraday rotator mirror,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 16, pp. 1906 - 1908, August 2004. 46. S.M.R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, A.B.

Sahin, and A.E. Willner, #8220;First order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using optical clock regeneration techniques,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. Cover! 22, pp. 1086 - 1093, April 2004. 47. C. Yu , Q. Yu, Z. Pan, A.B. Sahin, and A.E. Summary Essay! Willner, #8220;Optically compensating the PMD-induced RF power fading for letter ms mrs single-sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 16, pp. 341 343, January 2004.

48. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , Y. Essay! Wang, Q. Yu, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Cover Ms Mrs! Li, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in summary of pope essay, 40-Gb/s systems using nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 20, pp. 2239 2246, December 2002. 49.

Y.W. Song, Z. Pan, S.M.R. Motaghian Nezam, C. Yu , Y. Wang, D. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J.E. Rothenberg, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, R. Caldwell, R. Wilcox, and english A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable dispersion slope compensation for 40-Gb/s WDM systems using broadband nonchannelized third-order chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of summary of pope, Lightwave Technology , vol.

20, pp. 2259 2266, December 2002. 50. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, A.B. Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Intrabit polarization diversity modulation for the mitigation of PMD effects,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 14, pp. 1466 1468, October 2002. 51.

M.R. Wang, C. Yu , and A.J. Varela, #8220;Efficient pseudo-non-diffracting beam shaping using a quasi-continuous phase diffractive element,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 40, pp. Cover Letter Ms Mrs! 517-524, April 2001. 52. C. Essay On Criticism! Yu , M.R. Wang, A.J. Varela, and B. Essay On Guernica! Chen, #8220;High-density non-diffracting beam array for optical interconnection,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 177, pp.

369-376, April 2000. 53. X.H. Guang, M.R. Wang, and C. Yu , #8220;High-efficiency flat-top beam shaper fabricated by a nonlithographic technique,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 38, pp. 208-213, February 1999. 54. C. Summary Of Pope Essay! Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Phase and frequency offset estimation in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_1, pp.

1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011 (Invited) 55. S. Cao, C. Cover Ms Mrs! Yu , and summary P.Y. Kam, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_3, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011. 56. Widdowson! Z. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Xu, S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, and C. Yu , #8220;On the performance of decision-aided maximum likelihood and its adaptive phase estimation with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 6B3_3, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011.

57. H. Zhang, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Optimal ring ratio of food thesis, 16-Star quadrature amplitude modulation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7P3_030, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011. 58. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Summary Essay! Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Carrier recovery based on cover ms mrs digital signal processing in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; International Symposium on summary of pope on criticism Photonics Optical Communications (SPOC) 2011 , Paper 6.3, pp. 1, Chengdu, China, July 1-3, 2011 (Invited) 59. J. Food Thesis! Hu, J. Yang, F. Xu, and summary on criticism C. Essay! Yu , #8220;Chromatic dispersion monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signal with low bandwidth detector by evaluating the amplitude ratio of delay tap sampling,#8221; 3 rd International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC) 2011 , Paper 14, pp. 1, Hong Kong, May 30-31, 2011.

60. J. Hu, Z. Chen, J.T. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! Teo, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor based on matching filter demodulation,#8221; 21 st International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2011 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7753, 77538N, pp. 1-4, Ottawa, Canada, May 15-19, 2011. 61. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P. Y. Article Story Write Writing! Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Study on the performance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation with a forgetting factor,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2011 , Paper JWA022, pp. 1-3, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 6-10, 2011. 62. J. Yang, C. Yu , and Z. Of Pope! Li, #8220;PMD insensitive CD monitoring based on RF power ratio measurement utilizing FBG filter,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010 , Paper 2-2F-5, pp.

1-5, Singapore, December 14-16, 2010. 63. Z. Wang, W. Zhong, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and Y. Essays! Ding, #8220;Performance evaluation of OOK free-space optical transmission system with dynamic decision threshold and coherent detection,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010 , Paper 3-1F-4, pp. 1-5, Singapore, December 14-16, 2010. 64. C. Yu and J. Yang, #8220;CD and PMD monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering,#8221; Asia Communications and summary Photonics Conference and article feature magazine newspaper story Exhibition (ACP) 2010 , Paper FN1, pp. 1-8, Shanghai, China, December 8-12, 2010 (Invited) 65. J. Yang, M. He, H. Lu, Z. Li, and summary on criticism C. Yu , #8220;Chromatic dispersion monitoring of DQPSK and D8PSK signals based on delay-tap sampling technique,#8221; International Conference on Communications Systems (ICCS) 2010 , paper PM1-2-1-4, pp.

1-5, Singapore, November 17-19, 2010. 66. Z. Li, L. Cheng, C. Lu, and C. Yu , #8220;A novel dispersion monitoring scheme by essays by peter widdowson, evaluating eye diagram for 100Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK systems,#8221; International Conference on Communications Systems (ICCS) 2010 , paper PM1-2-1-2, pp. 1-5, Singapore, November 17-19, 2010. 67. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Summary! Chen, #8220;Phase estimation in coherent communication systems with semiconductor laser noises,#8221; Photonics Asia 2010 , Paper 7844-19, pp.

1-10, Beijing, China, October 18-20, 2010 (Invited) 68. Essays! H. Lu, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Impact of amplifier beat and nonlinear phase noises on coherent optical communication system,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Communications and summary of pope Networks (ICOCN) 2010 , pp. 294-298, Nanjing, China, October 24-27, 2010. 69. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, and J. Chen, #8220;Performance comparison between decision-aided maximum likelihood and adaptive decision-aided phase estimation,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Communications and food thesis Networks (ICOCN) 2010 , pp. Summary Of Pope Essay On Criticism! 253-257, Nanjing, China, October 24-27, 2010. Article Magazine Newspaper Story Write! 70. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! Wang, #8220;Performance investigation of the joint SPM compensation in a long-haul coherent dual-polarization QPSK system,#8221; Europe Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 , Paper P3.15, pp.

1-3 , Torino, Italy, September 19-23, 2010. 71. C. Essay! Yu , J. Of Pope! Yang and food thesis J. Hu, #8220; Nonlinear fiber based processing for high speed optical communication and sensor systems ,#8221; IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings (SUM) 2010 , Paper TuC2-3, pp. 1-2, Playa del Carmen, Riviera Maya, Mexico, July 19-21, 2010 (Invited) 72. Of Pope On Criticism! J. Yang, C. Yu , L. Cover Letter Ms Mrs! Cheng, Z. Li, and C. Lu , #8220;PMD insensitive CD monitoring based on of pope on criticism RF power ratio in D8PSK and DQPSK systems,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Internet (COIN) 2010 , Paper TuC3-3, pp. Role! 1-4, Jeju, Korea, July 11-14, 2010. 73. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and summary of pope J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 9B3-1, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010 (Invited) 74. Z. Li, C. Yu , L. Cheng, L.F.K.

Lui, C. Lu, A.P.T. Food Thesis! Lau, H.Y. Of Pope Essay! Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Stable photonic RF phase shifter based on essay a polarization sensitive optical phase modulator,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 6D2-6, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 75. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y.

Kam, and J. Chen, #8220;Optimizing the performance of normalized least-mean square phase estimation for digital coherent receivers,#8221; OptoElectronics and summary essay Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-16, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 76. H. Zhang, S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Optimized phase error tolerance of 16-star quadrature amplitude modulation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and essays widdowson Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 8P-15, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 77. Y. Yu, H. Zhang, and C. Yu , #8220;107-Gb/s WDM DQPSK Systems with 50 GHz Channel Spacing by summary of pope, Low-Crosstalk Demodulators,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-23, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 78.

S. On Guernica! Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Joint nonlinear parameters and OSNR monitoring for summary of pope essay on criticism DSP-based coherent systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-20, pp. Essays Widdowson! 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. Summary On Criticism! 79. J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor,#8221; 2 nd Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference (APOS) 2010 , Paper P0093, pp.

1-2, Guangzhou, China, June 28-30, 2010. 80. C. Yu , #8220;High speed optical pulse train generation and measurement in optical fiber communication systems,#8221; International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC) 2010 , Paper TR74.6, pp. 1-2, Singapore, May 13-14, 2010 (Invited) 81. J. Yang, and C. Yu , #8220;Broadband multi-wavelength light source generation using a single phase modulator in a loop,#8221; Conference on english gcse no coursework Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper JThE56, pp.

1-2, San Jose, CA, USA. Summary On Criticism! May 16-21, 2010. English Gcse No Coursework! 82. J. Yang, C. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! Yu , L. Role Of Research Paper! Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring by using FBG notch filter in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK and of pope essay 38-Gbit/s DQPSK systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper CThDD4, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA.

May 16-21, 2010. 83. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Frequency offset estimation using a Kalman filter in coherent optical phase-shift keying systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and by peter Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper CFC1, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA. May 16-21, 2010. 84. S. Of Pope! Zhang, L. Letter Ms Mrs! Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Novel ultra wide-range frequency offset estimation for digital coherent optical receiver,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010 , Paper OMK1, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, March 21-25, 2010. 85.

S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, P. Y. Kam, C. Of Pope Essay On Criticism! Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Experimental demonstration of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in 8-channel 42.8-Gbit/s DWDM coherent PolMux-QPSK system,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010 , Paper OWV3, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, March 21-25, 2010. 86. J. On Guernica! Yang, K.W.L. Chee, and C. Yu , #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for of pope essay on criticism different modulation formats based on RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter,#8221; 7 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Paper P0727, pp.

1-5, Macau, December 8-10, 2009. 87. S. Zhang, J. Article Feature Magazine Story Writing! Chen, C. Yu , W. Rong, and P. Y. Kam, #8220;ADC bandwidth optimization for coherent optical detection in phase-modulated systems,#8221; Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009 , Paper FC3, pp. 1-6, Shanghai, China, November 2-6, 2009. Of Pope! 88. J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, C. Yu , #8220;Long distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on Erbium-doped fiber and role Raman amplification,#8221; Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009 , Paper TuC5, pp. Summary Essay! 1-6, Shanghai, China, November 2-6, 2009. 89. J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu , Y.K. Yeo, and gcse no coursework Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel 80-GHz pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009 , Paper TuA5, pp. 1-2, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009.

90. J. Hu, C. Summary! Yu , #8220;An improved autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009 , Paper ThM4, pp. 1-2, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. 91. J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu , Y.K. Yeo, and Y. Wang, #8220;80-GHz multi-channel RZ pulse train generation based on food thesis XPM and FWM in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , Paper P-S5.03, pp. Summary Essay! 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. 92. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Magazine Research! Ng, and X. Yang, #8220;Polarization insensitivity optic distributed strain sensing system based on summary of pope essay on criticism stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; 5 th International Conference on newspaper story writing Materials for summary essay Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , P-S10.12, pp. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009.

93. X. Li, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and P. Paper! Y. Kam, #8220;Pilot decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical QPSK and 8PSK systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and of pope essay Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , Paper CMZ4, pp. Essay On Guernica! 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 31-June 5, 2009. 94. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, and on criticism C. Food Thesis! Yu , #8220;Block length effect of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical communication systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , Paper CMZ3, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 31-June 5, 2009. 95. S. Of Pope Essay! Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and letter ms mrs C. Yu , #8220;A comparison of phase estimation in coherent optical PSK system,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008 , Paper C3-4A-03, Singapore, December 8-11, 2008. 96. G.J.

Pendock, W. Shieh, X. Yi, and C. Yu , #8220;Measuring dispersion in WDM links with modulated background ASE,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper WeK-2, pp. 1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 97. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Adaptive decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper TuA-4, pp.

1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 98. S. Zhang, P.Y. Of Pope Essay! Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Receiver sensitivity improvement using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and essays widdowson Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2008 , Paper CthJJ2, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA, May 4-9, 2008. Summary! 99. C. Yu , #8220;Optical short pulse generation and measurement based on fiber polarization effects,#8221; 16 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2008 , Paper Optical-11, pp. 66, Taichung, Taiwan, April 23-24, 2008 (Invited) 100. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng, and essays by peter X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of polarization sensitivity in BOTDA fiber distributed sensing system,#8221; 19 th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2008 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7004, Paper 700421, pp.

1-4, Perth, Australia, April 14-18, 2008. 101. C. Yu , G.J. Pendock, X. Yi, and of pope essay on criticism W. Shieh, #8220;Dispersion measurement through WDM systems with modulated background ASE,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2008 , Paper JWA29, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, February 24-28, 2008. 102.

C. Yu , J. Yang, Z. Li, and food thesis Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel 160-GHz pulse generator using a 40-GHz phase modulator and two stages of PM fiber,#8221; 6 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007, Paper P0848, pp. 1-4, Singapore, December 10-13, 2007. 103. C. Yu , Z. Li, J. Yang and Y. Wang, #8220;Multi-channel high-speed optical pulse train generation based on summary on criticism phase modulation at half frequency,#8221; Conference on Lasers and english gcse no coursework Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper CMJJ7, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 104. Z. Li, Y.J.

Wen, C. Yu , W. Rong, Y. Summary Of Pope! Wang, and T.H. Cheng, #8220;Optimizing Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering of english, a single pump,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper JTuA63, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 105. Y. Summary Essay! Dong, Z. Li, C. Yu , Y.J. Wen, Y. Wang, C. Lu, W. Hu and newspaper T.H. Cheng, #8220;Generation of multi-channel short-pulse sources using nonlinear optical loop mirror based on photonic crystal fiber,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2007 , Paper JWA9, pp. 1-3, Anaheim, CA, USA, March 25-29, 2007. 106. C. Yu , #8220;Applications of fiber nonlinearities in high-speed WDM optical communication systems,#8221; 15 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2006 , Paper PS-4-2, pp.

1, Hangzhou, China, October 12-13, 2006 (Invited) 107. Z. Zhu, A.M.C. Dawes, D. Gauthier, M.D. Stenner, M.A. Neifeld, T. Luo, C. Yu , L. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Recent advances in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light,#8221; OSA Topical Meeting on Slow and summary essay Fast Light , Paper TuB1, pp. 1, Washington D.C., USA, July 23-26, 2006 (Invited) 108. Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. Yu , #8220;160 GHz optical pulse generation using a 40 GHz phase modulator and two stages of delayed MZ interferometers,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CFP2, pp. 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006. 109.

C. On Guernica! Yu , L. Xu, and summary of pope essay on criticism T. Wang, #8220;Six-times the transmission distance over standard single-mode fiber for 10-Gb/s directly-modulated system by off-center filtering and electronic equalization,#8221; Conference on article feature Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CMNN4, pp. Of Pope On Criticism! 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006.

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Alexander pope an essay on criticism summary

Example of the summary, OCR coursework at A grade. Example of the design graphics coursework, the product would be diferant for your product which you designed.Do not copy or you will be disqualified in your exam, use as a guide line. Design Technology: Graphics AS All boards Created by: Abi Created on: 06-06-10 18:26. Analysis of by peter Product. Intended purpose of Product. Purpose The pick guard is the summary essay on criticism, protection of the finish Elegant type of article feature magazine story write writing wood (e.g. Of Pope Essay? mahogany)

The well known parts are: of the top of the food thesis, guitar while using picks. Summary Essay? Strings are supposedly not easy to letter ms mrs, break, · To be able to play music. Headstock, Jack for the lead of the summary of pope essay on criticism, amplifier is on the whenever consumers try to use and tone it, it. To be able to turn the food thesis, electric knobs easily should not be easy to break. Nut, normal distance wherein it is easier to put the. lead whenever in use of an amplifier. Tuning Keys As well as turning the tuning keys Manufacturing: Body is of pope, a bit curved so that it would be. Frets, The pick guard should be protecting the easier to carry and english played even without the Manufactured in the Epiphone Company so. Truss rod, finish of the top of the guitar straps. Essay? that they would easily know which one is not. Inlay, The jack for cover the lead of the amplifier should made by consumer#039;s satisfaction.

be in the right distance so that it would be. Neck and fret board, easier for the guitarist to jack in the lead Interview with a Consumer Time: Neck, whenever in use of an summary of pope on criticism amplifier. Quality needs to be perfect, from the by peter widdowson, sound Manufacturers take less time in essay on criticism making the. Pickups, The body should be curved so that it would of the guitar to the tuning keys, etc. guitar so that they wouldn#039;t lose the cost that. be easier for the guitarist to food thesis, play even though they are making because there are no more. Electric control knobs, he is of pope, not using any straps. Performance of the guitar must be almost guitars made. Bridge perfect as well, even with the lead of article research story write writing the. Pick guard, guitar, the amplifier with it and all the electric Cost:

The tuning keys must be easy to of pope, turn and knobs. The cost of an original Epiphone guitar is. Jack for on guernica the lead and amplifier exact so the tuning would be right Having the strap handles, and summary of pope essay the strap around ?150+ The frets are easily known where they are. Cover Ms Mrs? should not be easily broken, whenever it is. Features used always when playing. Essay On Criticism? The electric Efficiency. The pickups are in the normal distance knobs should not loosen because it is one of. from the essay, strings so that they would not pick the summary essay, important special features on an electric. It is food thesis, not bulky so that it would be easier to play even Manufacturer uses computer, to be easy to.

up the vibrations when strummed, and guitar like Epiphone SG. without guitar straps correct wrong measurements, etc. also, plucked. It needs to be easy to use so that the. The pickups are put wherein they are easily reached computer move faster than people, so having. by the guitarist The electric control knobs is easy to turn so guitarist would be over fatigued whenever a computer to summary essay on criticism, scale all the work in. Also the same as the electric control knobs whenever you want the treble, bass or playing the guitar. (e.g. too heavy, hard to manufacturing would make it more faster to.

The neck is easy to hold when playing volume turned up or down even though you play. etc.) produce guitars. Specification points Needs of the Manufacturer. The pick guard is the protection of the finish. of the top of the feature magazine story, guitar while using picks. It should be durable Manufacturers of Epiphone SGs are the.

Lightweight Jack for the lead of the amplifier is on the Beijing Gibson Musical Instrument Co. Summary Of Pope Essay? Ltd. Easy to push the strings normal distance wherein it is easier to put the. Pickups should be in the right place lead whenever in use of an amplifier. Food Thesis? Materials.

Must not be bulky Body is a bit curved so that it would be. Must be shiny Materials that is required to of pope on criticism, be scratch. easier to feature research story, carry and played even without the. Analysis of Product. Criteria for of pope on criticism designing on original product. Should be able to play music Guitar must be stylish. Must have range of colours and styles to suit people#039;s mood. Consumers must be able to play it comfortably. Materials and Components. It must be easy to take care of or maintain. Shouldn#039;t be heavy.

Like all electric guitars, its body must be made of glossy. wood (e.g. mahogany). Function· The other metal parts must not be too sharp so that when Ergonomics and Anthropometrics. touch the consumer would not be cut. The body of the guitar must have a curvy shape so that when the.

The tuning keys must be easy to turn and paper exact so. consumer doesn#039;t have straps it is easier to put it on their lap when. the tuning would be right. Production Methods playing. The frets are easily known where they are. Pieces of the guitar must be made on a computer so that The neck of the guitar must meet the average grip of summary a person so. when done by the machine it is perfectly designed. that it would be easier to hold it whenever a consumer uses it.

The pickups are in letter the normal distance from summary of pope on criticism the. Batched production could be used in manufacturing the. strings so that they would not pick up the vibrations guitar, because they would not know how many people would. when strummed, and plucked. On Guernica? Aesthetics. buy the guitar, so if ever they need just only one more, they. Must have a range of colours so that it may suit the mood of the. The electric control knobs is easy to turn so still batch produce so that if ever more is needed they made.

whenever you want the treble, bass or volume turned Mustn#039;t have the smell of varnish whenever newly bought. up or down even though you are playing. Summary Of Pope On Criticism? Must have the smooth finish so that whenever the consumer uses. Performance The parts must be easily unassembled so that when strings it, it may be a plus when bought. need to be replaced it would be easily assembled and. The sound of the guitar must have good quality. Tuning keys must be working well, so that the tone In assembling the guitar in the manufacturing area, a The price of the on guernica, product must practical as other competition. can be adjusted whenever needed. machine could do it so it can be watched and controlled by manufacturers to compete with value for money.

Size The product could be known as one of the of pope essay, highest quality products. so that it would be more known. It must the average size of an electric guitar that has Finish. It must have a smooth finish Because of the brand name and of course the quality that it has, it. As well as the edges so that the gcse no coursework, consumer won#039;t get cut. must have a reasonable but high price. The size of the neck must meet the average grip of It must be comfortable to hold and to play music as well.

an average person. It must attract the target market so that more consumers Product Life span. Ergonomics and anthropometrics data need to be. would buy. Most famous guitarist have collection of guitars, life span would. met on the size of the guitar most probably be a very long time, of course when maintained often. Health and Safety The product should have a warrantee so that if it does not satisfy. The strings should not be easily broken so that when the of pope on criticism, the consumer, they can bring it back and replace it. consumer tightens the tuning keys it wont break. Weight Edges must be smooth enough so that the role paper, consumer won#039;t.

Cost of production and retail. Must weigh the average weight of an electric guitar. get cut on the edges while playing. Cost of of pope on criticism production must be as low as possible, but still high. Quality testing and standard quality. The guitars must undergo quality testing so that when. Ease of Use consumers buy it, they wouldn#039;t have too much complaint Value Issues. when using the guitar Because the food thesis, guitar is made of wood (e.g. mahogany), The strings must be easily plucked and strummed manufacturers should only cut wood if the tree is already meant for. Tuning keys must be easily turned Maintenance cutting, not an of pope on criticism immature tree.

Electric knobs must be easily turned as well. In cases of spilling the guitar must have a protective. When making the guitar fashionable, they must not have any. images or text that can offend other religion or other races. Letter? (E.g. Must be cleaned once in a while. The materials and components used must be durable so having a nazi sign on a specific guitar) that when it is always used it wouldn#039;t wear out, especially the. Analysis of summary essay on criticism Product. Strengths and weaknesses of the product. Function Materials Manufacturing Ergonomics Aesthetics Cost. The strings are easy to strum and food thesis The entire finished material of the summary of pope essay, These kinds of guitars are The body of the guitar has a curvy Although Epiphone SG does not Cost of the materials and the other.

plucked. Epiphone SG guitar is food thesis, anti scratch, and manufactured to of pope on criticism, a high quality shape so that when the consumer have a range of colours yet to essay, fit the parts are low cost but even though they. The electric knobs are easy to turn glossy. because well-known guitarist doesn#039;t have straps it is easier to put it mood of consumers, the on criticism, colours they are, it has high quality because they. whenever you want to adjust the The wood used in making the guitar on their lap when playing. Essay On Guernica? have such as black and red, are mostly are under the makings of Gibson as. uses these guitars. the colour liked by most guitarist well. volume etc. is very durable and strong and summary essay on criticism it does The neck of the guitar meets the. Tuning keys are easy to turn as well not bend even though you put the Strong wood for high quality average grip of a person so that it because of punk-rock mood when Because they are partners with. Strengths whenever you tune the guitar or change guitar on a guitar stand for a long time. sounds. would be easier to hold it whenever a playing.

Gibson, Epiphone is sold on cover, a high. the strings of the guitar. Because the wood used is one of the consumer uses it. The finish of the guitar looks perfectly price because of the summary essay on criticism, name and of the. Bridge of the guitar is easy to take out best woods like mahogany or ebony, The electric knobs, the amplifier jack, varnished but you can never smell the maker. whenever you change the strings as all in on guernica all it is an attractive material. the summary on criticism, pickups are put in a place wherein it varnish when newly bought. well. Metal parts are not too sharp so that is easy for the consumer to reach, and Guitars are usually used near your. Fret bars are easily known where the consumer won#039;t be cut when not having to rotate the essay on guernica, guitar just to body and summary essay on criticism your hands; this guitar has a. they are because they are done in a playing. adjust the volume and treble etc. smooth finish so that consumers are.

way where it sticks out and letter ms mrs you could Strong wood for summary of pope essay high quality sounds not cut whenever they are playing. feel it with your hands without looking at. It is not designed to play sitting down If it gets wet, the wood can The makers of the cover, guitar did not take It does not have a range of colours, It does not have a range of colours, It is hard to set up the materials. for a long period of summary of pope essay on criticism time, because the easily loose its glossy feature. when manufacturing because into account the fact that not all people which could fit the newspaper research write, mood of every which could fit the mood of every. guitar body is too small. have the summary of pope essay, average grip of of research paper a person, so if consumer. consumer. Because of the glossy texture they need the different kinds of the person has a smaller grip or. Most people carry the guitar by their Taking credit to summary of pope, the colour blind Taking credit to the colour blind. of the wood, it is easy to have colour in the body, or because thechubbier fingers, it is harder to play and. neck and role of research paper might damage the summary essay on criticism, truss rod people, the ms mrs, colours of the guitar should people, there must be symbols on the.

and bend it. basically guitar is of pope on criticism, not fingerprints on it that is hard to materials are sometimes importedhold the role of research, chords when playing. have some colours for the colour blind guitar so that colour blind people would. Weakness meant to be carried around on two take off. from other countries, therefore Sometimes it is harder to use the people, and the frets should be seen in recognize the frets and should be seen. hands, which is not good for the guitar. The metal parts can easily rust the time is wasted waiting for the electric guitar when sitting down a way that a colour blind could see it. in a way that a colour blind could see it. An electric guitar needs a high quality when not used or when the.

lead and amplifier, if the amplifier is not. a high quality and summary the lead is, or vice. consumer has sweaty hands. materials to come. because it is too small and whenever. you sit down you have to slouch down. a bit to hear it without an amplifier.

versa it wouldn#039;t sound right, especially. when you#039;re playing and article feature story write writing you have to. move it distorts the sound and summary of pope essay on criticism it ruins. A guitar with a built in food thesis amplifier will be The materials of the guitar can come in Even though time is needed in summary on criticism Although the makers of the article, guitar had In aesthetics, there are loads of Most famous guitarist collect guitars, or. applicable for the weaknesses that are with quite loads of summary essay weaknesses if they manufacturing the guitar, the some flaws on by peter widdowson, the ergonomics of the important details wherein you have to summary of pope on criticism, buy a new one whenever they have. stated, so whenever you want to move have not been put together, but if they manufacturers order earlier so that they design, the strengths still make it take account for all the consumers; used the other guitar just once, and. Conclusion for performances it wouldn#039;t ruin the have been put together, they work very would not run out of materials, and almost perfect, especially when it has therefore even the english gcse, weakness can be a even beginners nowadays would want. performance because of a low quality well, they produce high quality would be easy to manufacture more in of pope high quality sound that just that bother for other consumers. a high quality and a well known guitar.

lead and separate amplifier. performance for the consumers. the time they can reach their sales. when they first start to play…read more. Analysis of article feature newspaper research story writing Product. Strengths and weaknesses of the product. Product Function Materials Manufacturing Ergonomics Aesthetics Cost Conclusion. We all know that the Gibson As well as all electric guitars, Gibson SG is the maker if Its shape is very curvy and essay on criticism it#039;s Gibson SG has more It cost more than the One thing that I noticed on by peter widdowson, this. SG is summary of pope essay on criticism, quite the same as the english gcse, they can be made on very high Epiphone SG, so most of the easy to put on lap whenever a different range of colours Epiphone SG, because of its product is it costs more an has a.

Epiphone SG although some of quality woods such as manufacturing is done quite the consumer is playing, which is very high quality than Epiphone. when made, whether it#039;s name and of its maker. the Epiphone SG has only 2 mahogany, ebony etc. same with the of pope essay, Epiphone but, they quite the essays widdowson, same with the Epiphone because it is summary of pope on criticism, a well known. Gibson SG custom made or the mass- electric control knobs and this would be more mass-produced SG. maker, which makes it hard for. one has 3. because of its name and feature newspaper write maker. produced colours of the my guitar, because no one. guitar. would buy it with such a high. cost with a not so well known.

It is essay on criticism, also a stringed A violin is usually made of On manufacturing a violin, it It has a chinrest to make it On most violins there are only paper, Most of the student violins cost What I noticed in of pope essay this is, it is. Violin instrument, but it is on guernica, seldom different kinds of wood, for would take more or less the easier for the consumer to play, small range of summary essay colours, because on a range from ?55 - ?75, on the hand made because of essay the. plucked, you play it with the example the summary of pope, neck is usually same time an electric guitar is because it is a small instrument most of the violinist are playing other hand the proper design of the violin, to make it. used, because the electric guitar and you normally use bowing on an orchestra, therefore they professional violin cost on essay, a perfect on the quality of the. use of bows that produces made of maple, while the has loads of on criticism components in it, techniques, not plucking or have to on guernica, have the same colour of range of ?80 - ?100. sound and of pope the body of the violin, the sounds by gcse the vibrations fingerboard is made of and the violin is mostly strumming unlike on a guitar. violin when playing.

As we all know that there is an which would make it nice if the. of the bow. Ebony. Summary On Criticism? handcrafted for essays by peter the holes to be It also is small to make it easier. It can be light and its colour electric violin, which would cost guitar I have now is hand made. perfectly carved and the sounds to carry whenever you play it. can be nice to the eyes as well ?200 - ?500. so that it is made sure that it. to be perfect, therefore, the time would produce a high quality.

used in manufacturing the essay, violin sound and a high quality looking. is quite the same with the electric (aesthetics) for consumers to. Electric Acoustic Guitar It may be quite the same as the essays widdowson, Electric acoustic guitars Manufacturing an electric It also has the curvy body so There are loads of electric Electric acoustic guitars cost on Electric acoustic guitar is heard. electric guitar, but it is a mixture have quite the same acoustic guitar is quite the that it would be easier for acoustic guitars all over the a range from of pope essay on criticism ?150 - ?300, even though without an. of an essays acoustic and an electric consumers to put it on their lap world, so most probably there arebecause there are more amplifier, so I#039;ll try to make sure. materials with electric and same in manufacturing an. guitar, because on an electric when playing. different range of colours, and components in it because it is a that my product has high quality. guitar, without an summary amplifier you acoustic guitars combined Epiphone SG. The neck has the essays by peter widdowson, average grip range of designs to suit the mood mixture of electric and acoustic sound when I put the amplifier.

can hear the sounds, but on summary on criticism, the together. of a normal aged person. of the consumer. guitars. with the guitar itself. electric acoustic either way you Even with the article feature magazine newspaper writing, electric control Some of the custom made. can hear the sounds. knobs, it is summary, placed wherein it can electric acoustic guitars are very. be easily reached by the fashionable because of the. consumer when playing. designs that consumers want on. Lap Guitar Lap guitar is different from the article feature magazine writing, Because it can be electric or In manufacturing a lap guitar, it It is light to make it easy to summary of pope essay on criticism, put It can be costumed made, so Because they are not so well I#039;ve noticed that it is smaller than. normal guitars, you put it in your acoustic, it has the same is not that well known rather than on lap when playing that it can suit the mood of the known, they cost much more than most guitars, evidently because. lap, and gcse you pluck the strings materials such as the electric electric and acoustic guitar, so its It small to make it easy to carry consumer, whether it#039;s a different most guitars, they range from on criticism it is role paper, a lap guitar, so I#039;ll try to.

differently as well as holding the acoustic guitar, with different batched produced. On Criticism? around. colour or a different shape. ?100 - ?300. make sure the size of my guitar. chords differently as well. components for its use. The lap guitar has a level back would fit on the purpose on what. for it not to rock when playing on I#039;m meant to be doing. I have researched that there are many types of guitars and stringed instrument available to the public. Analysis of Product. Nevertheless, I have seen that they have weakness which some include, having to carry it around all the time. with an amplifier on the other hand. Cover Letter? The type of guitar I have chosen to improve is the summary of pope essay on criticism, typical electric guitars Design Brief and Specification.

with the control knobs, pickups etc. Essays? However, I have examined it, and their weaknesses are almost the same as. other electric guitars and stringed instruments. As the amplifier is so much hassle when you carry it all around Safety. with the summary of pope essay, guitar as well, and the shape of the on guernica, guitar is a bit hard when playing it especially when sitting down. Some of the metal part must be too sharp especially the strings, so when consumers play it they wouldn#039;t. get cut especially when changing from summary on criticism a different chord to of research paper, the next. I am going to improve my product by redesigning the shape of the summary of pope, guitar in which it can be easier to article feature newspaper writing, play when The side of the guitar especially in the top of the summary essay, headstock and essay on guernica the tuning keys must not be sharp as. sitting or standing up, as well as easier to carry, and to put a built in amplifier so that there is less hassle when well, so when consumers turn it or hold the headstock they wont get cut.

you are setting up for a performance. Specification Evidently electric guitars must not get wet, or get something spilt on it, so that it wouldn#039;t ruin the. electronics inside the guitar. Ergonomics The materials and components used must be durable so that when it is always used it wouldn#039;t wear out, The body of the guitar must have a curvy shape so that when the consumer doesn#039;t have straps it is easier to especially the of pope essay, metal part. put it on their lap when playing. The neck of the guitar must meet the food thesis, average grip of a person that it would be easier to hold it whenever a Size and Weight. consumer uses it. Must have the normal weight of an electric guitar, so when consumers are playing it would be easier to. The tuning keys must be easy to turn, so when the consumer is tuning the guitar it wouldn#039;t be hard for them play even when standing up.

to use one hand in turning the tuning keys. As well as having the right size, so when consumers are playing it won#039;t be hard for them if it#039;s big or. Electric control knobs must be reachable when the consumer uses the guitar, so that it would be easier for small, it#039;s just the summary, right size. them to adjust the treble or the bass etc while playing. The fret bars must be correctly placed and easily known where they are, so when the consumer is playing it is Product Life Cycle. easy to know which chord to do next. Life span would most probably be a very long time (in regular maintenance), because most famous. Must have a handle grip on the side, so that the essay on guernica, consumer can easily grip it even without the case. guitarist has collection of guitars, and of course there are people who have a collection of well known. guitars on display in their houses or placed in museums. Aesthetics The product should have a warrantee so that if it does not satisfy the summary of pope on criticism, consumer, they can bring it back. Must have a range of colours so that it may suit the mood of the consumer. and replace it.

Mustn#039;t have the role of research, smell of varnish whenever newly bought, so that it wouldn#039;t have a negative outcome with the. Must have the smooth finish so that whenever the consumer uses it, it may be a plus when bought. Consumers should be band artists who play the guitar, so that I would be easier for summary of pope essay them to transport their. The guitar must have a good design, so that consumers have a good time playing it when other people are guitar with built in paper amplifier rather than carrying both amplifier and summary of pope essay on criticism guitar. watching. As well as students who play the essays by peter widdowson, guitar in school, the same reason with band artists to be easier to carry. around school and easier to assemble without taking too much time when they have to play.

The tuning keys must be easy to turn and exact so the tuning would be right Quality Standards. The frets are easily known where they are, so it is easy to summary, know which fret or chord is which. Food Thesis? Guitar must be stylish in a way it is up to quality with the consumers, so that more consumers would buy. The pickups are in the normal distance from the strings so that they would not pick up the vibrations when the guitar because of the on criticism, quality of the essays by peter widdowson, style. strummed, and plucked. Must have range of summary essay on criticism colours and styles to suit people#039;s mood, because we all know there are loads of. The electric control knobs is easy to turn so whenever you want the english, treble, bass or volume turned up or down colours in which people would love to see a guitar in.

even though a consumer is playing. Summary Of Pope Essay? It must be easy to take care of or maintain, because of the quality for the reason that most people would. The pick guard protects the finish of the top of the guitar, so that the picks don#039;t scratch the essays widdowson, guitar when like it to have a long life span. Cost Because the guitar is made of of pope essay wood (e.g. mahogany), manufacturers should only cut wood if the tree is. The cost may be high, but making sure that is also high quality, so consumers wouldn#039;t be disappointed when already meant for cutting, not an immature tree, because we know that trees help in newspaper our ecosystem. they buy with a high price and a high quality as well. If ever there is a time that a guitar is smashed into pieces or cannot be used anymore, it needs to be. Or it may have the summary of pope on criticism, right price, so that customers can have a choice on what guitar to buy, the normal price with recycled.

Analysis of Product The good point is essays, that it can be recycled and summary essay we can plant. Economic responsibility means, we consider economic implications of. Moral Implications Social Issues another tree whenever one is cut. our actions, including making certain that there is an economic benefit Social responsibility means ensuring that our own and by peter widdowson other people#039;s Manufacturing. both to the region from summary on criticism which the product came and to the region in quality of essay on guernica life and human rights are not compromised to fulfil our All processes that uses energy in the production procedure. My.

which it is marketed. expectations and summary essay demands. product uses big computer operated machineries that uses. loads of electricity to power it up, although it has a huge. Does it create jobs? Is the product really needed? Not really = bad. Useful = good negative impact, because it is wasting loads of energy, the. Developing, making, using and disposing of a new product will have an Some products do more damage than good, example if we use a product advantage is, it only uses one machine which is not needed to.

impact on jobs. Ms Mrs? For example, many modern products are produced by of pope on criticism just to throw it in under a small period of gcse time it is usually doing more be adjusted every now and then because it is summary on criticism, designed to food thesis, do. computer controlled systems (CAM), where the outcome is the essay, loss of damage than good. The designers of my product have not used so much the same thing on all of the of research, wood that are needed in essay on criticism making. jobs for skilled workers in factories. As the product is made by cutting packaging on the products just the english gcse, boxes used for it to summary of pope essay, be transported the cover letter ms mrs, guitar, except for painting. Of Pope On Criticism? Furthermore, other.

the body of the guitar in the accurate shape for it to sound good, from places to by peter widdowson, places, the boxes are eco friendly as well. I believe than procedures are done my hand, such as the putting the summary essay, pick. this means there is not much job opportunities in essays by peter the actual my product is one that is useful because it can sustain a long time guard, pick ups, to see that everything would be accurate, production of the product as the machines do most of the work. especially because it is a musical instrument. It entertains people even for the painting. So there is still a good point in the. The only benefit is that some of the work needs to be done by summary of pope hand, whenever you use it especially with other musical instruments manufacturing of the guitar.

which takes skilled workers, especially the putting of the role, strings accompanied by it. and the painting of the guitar especially if it needs to on criticism, be custom Distribution and sale. made. Which means the product may not be a great benefit for the Social ­ Diminishes (bad) Promotes (good) Getting the product from the factory to the place it will be used. local economy in regards to providing jobs.

Different products have different degrees of sociability, like mp3s it does would have a big impact to cover letter, the environment. My product is. not allow users to essay, be sociable, when using mp3s or mp4s you don#039;t really made in America, so the transportation distance is very. Exploitation/Fair Trade communicate with anyone while listening to it at the same time. The expensive, it has to reach UK and to be distributed to. Many products that we buy are manufactured by people who are badly electric guitar, makes you very sociable especially when you perform different shops, all of food thesis this pollutes the environment because. paid and work in summary essay very poor conditions. Although at the other end there in front of food thesis a crowd of people, you entertain them, they know you more of the transport that was used. Furthermore, the product is. are fair-traded products. Here everyone is involved and properly paid, because you play the guitar, which is summary essay on criticism, very sociable indeed.

As well as packaged in a cardboard box but made sure that it is stable. have safe working conditions and paper often some of the profits are put in it builds character, which means more socializing for people. inside with other cardboard, making the total mileage of the. the community, for health services, education or training. As the of pope, product very high. product is manufactured in America; building the food thesis, guitar needs a Basic rights and freedom. very skilful worker to complete the of pope essay, guitar, therefore they cannot Every person has a right to basic freedoms ­ safety, care, place to role of research paper, live, etc. Using the product. exploit the workers because they are only skilful workers. Summary Of Pope On Criticism? For that These are included in the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as Using the product sometimes makes the most environmental.

reason this product is not the one that exploits workers very well as right to education, for adults ­ job, fair pay, right to vote etc. As impact, such as cars and places, the fossil fuels used. My product. poorly as some others e.g. people working in very bad conditions. with any other rights, using the electric guitar, provides with different doesn#039;t really have the essay, pollution that cars and planes. things to do with it, such as using it to of pope essay, play in a gig or something for a produce, it#039;s product life is gcse no coursework, very long because it needs to be. Use of resources job, or even just for playing it for people who needs to be lightened up used all the time especially by well known guitarist, Many products are inefficient, where there are too much material used because they had a bad day. although some of the parts break it can easily be replaced.

or too much energy or water is used in the production. Producing this with parts that you can by summary essay from your nearest high street or. kind of products causes pollution and makes the products expensive. My Environmental Issues. product is the one that uses the resources wisely, e.g when cutting. the body of the guitar, some of the essay, saw dust are gathered and Disposing the essay, product. Environmental responsibility means ensuring that our actions and lifestyles. made MDF (medium density fibre board). There is definitely room Most products are thrown away and they end up in landfill sites, don#039;t cause the planet#039;s resources to food thesis, be used at unsustainable rates.

for improvement, especially for the machines that are on every which can cause a huge pollution. But there are other. day for a long time, that uses loads of essay on criticism electricity alternatives. My product are rarely thrown away its either. smashed (by famous guitarists : Slash) or kept for. Extracting the essays by peter widdowson, materials needed for products has a large impact on the. Sold for a profit sentimental values especially for musicians, so it is rarely.

environment, whether this is mining for oil or coal, cutting down trees in. A product that sells at less than it costs to make is on criticism, not sustainable ­ thrown away. Therefore, if it is thrown away it#039;s parts can. large areas or quarrying for on guernica stone it all has an effect on the environment. unless it is sponsored or subsidized. Of Pope Essay On Criticism? Such as public transports might be easily be recycled such as the essay on guernica, wood, or the metal parts that. My product would be made from wood, which are from trees and.

subsidized to keep fares down for all passengers, which are all paid are with it. small amount of summary of pope steel and metal for its parts, the wood needed for essay the. from taxes. This particular product that I am studying is sold for a guitar will have a large effect on the environment because it involves. profit, it is not because they want to rip off people, its because it cutting down trees although it is a renewable material, every time a. helps them to get more materials in making more guitars, and tree is essay, cut, a new one is planted. Furthermore, the saw dust that are. because wood are very expensive especially when they need to it wasted whenever a wood is cut, is recycled and role of research made into MDF and. down, and sawed into a right size for the guitar. can still be used.…read more. Report Wed 5th March, 2014 @ 20:36. This is actually one of the best resources I have come across. It is just what I needed!

I was stuck on what needed to be included and how to lay it out!! Thank you sooo much x. Similar Design Technology: Graphics resources: © Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of summary of pope on criticism The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and of research Wales), VAT No.

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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and summary of pope essay on criticism, finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to widdowson, find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to of pope essay on criticism, be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is essay writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while.

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How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and summary, engaging in other overkill tactics. Excessive and irrelevant information only english no coursework, clutters the page and makes it more difficult to summary of pope essay, find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought. As such, a separate resume should be used for essay on guernica, each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different. Summary On Criticism! At the end of essays widdowson this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary)

While some employers seem to be in the habit of on criticism posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to gcse, not only the skills, experience, and education of a desired employee, but also the of pope essay, description, expectations, and demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. Magazine Research! If the summary essay, employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to by peter, find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. You may have to begin at an entry level position in essay on criticism a company that seeks supervisory and english gcse no coursework, upper management applicants from within. If this is the case, be extremely careful about divulging the extent of summary essay on criticism your education, experience, and salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’.

However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is that at some point you just have to accept that options are limited and food thesis, be willing to ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Essay On Criticism! Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience. If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the paper, most compelling details are on the first page and summary on criticism, that it’s not crowded with words. Letter! In addition to summary of pope on criticism, your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to list only the essay on guernica, most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and essay on criticism, either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon on guernica request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in summary on criticism case the reviewer is article research so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and summary, irrelevant details take away from the widdowson, razzle and dazzle of the first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to summary of pope on criticism, demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to know the capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of essay on guernica Your Curriculum Vitae.

You want your C.V to summary of pope, sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to gcse, present a snapshot of what you have to essay, offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Essays Widdowson! Review their posted list of required skills and on criticism, job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of on guernica your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out.

If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at of pope essay, the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and gcse, make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center.

For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the summary, entire width of the food thesis, page, your next sections should be small and centered. This would be a great place to list your skills. Summary! If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to article feature magazine research story write, your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references.

If there is summary any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in food thesis between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae.

Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per of pope application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and gcse, once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the same name and changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the of pope essay on criticism, word ‘Company’ with each different place to english gcse, which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in summary essay on criticism today’s economy.

Writing a great cover letter is probably the food thesis, most important step you can towards landing the job of essay on criticism their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the by peter, first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Even the of pope essay, most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to of research paper, read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at on criticism, a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text.

To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to gcse no coursework, include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to summary, name drop, so take advantage of essay it. Potential employers want to summary of pope essay on criticism, know how you heard about the position.

You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to feature research write, which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in on criticism common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to role of research paper, link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of of pope on criticism all the schools you’ve attended and article magazine research write, courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here.

A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to summary essay, keep the entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to english gcse no coursework, tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to summary of pope, an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview.

Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in food thesis your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. Summary Essay! You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to cover ms mrs, read your resume and summary, ultimately invite you to an interview.

The rest is up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the english gcse no coursework, buyer, in of pope this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to role of research paper, rise to summary of pope essay, the top. You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray.

If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about english no coursework five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to summary, investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an essay, impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Summary Essay On Criticism! Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for of research paper, the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position.

Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by summary of pope on criticism proving that you not only of research, did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about summary essay how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the role of research, power of imagination to stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. Of Pope! If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in english the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Summary Of Pope On Criticism! Landing an gcse, offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort.

If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of summary these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.