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A Brief Guide to Writing an Effective EE Conclusion

How to write an ib english essay conclusion

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A Brief Guide to Writing an Effective EE Conclusion

Kakuma News Reflector – A Refugee Free Press. Volume 1, Issue 4-5 / March-April 2009. Does UNHCR have an obligation to uphold the how to write english conclusion, human rights that are essential for refugees’ free and full development as human beings? Are there any circumstances where a refugee could take UNHCR to court for failing in this regard? Zachary A. Lomo , LLB (Makerere), LLM (Harvard), directed the Refugee Law Project of the essay on guernica, Faculty of Law, Makerere University from how to an ib conclusion, July 2001 to August 2006. He co-authored RLP Working Paper Series, Behind the essay on guernica, Violence, on the causes of the war in northern Uganda, Negotiating Peace, and Whose Justice? He is currently reading for his doctorate in International Law and Refugees at the University of Cambridge. The answers to these questions depend on one’s view about international law and its functions.

My answer is yes and I will explain shortly; UNHCR has an obligation to uphold the rights and freedoms of refugees and should be sued by a refugee who has suffered harm resulting from UNHCR’s actions and omissions or plainly its decisions, policies, and practices. I reach this conclusion because I share the view of other international lawyers, such as President Rosalyn Higgins of the International Court of Justice, that international law is a ‘system of ordered conduct’ that is ‘harnessed to the achievement of how to english, common values – values that speak to us all, whether we are rich or poor, black or white, or any religion or none, or come from countries that are industrialized or developing,’[1] and I would add, whether refugee or not, international organisations in their classical sense or subsidiary organs of these international organisations or private voluntary agencies. The classical and an ib essay, positivist international lawyer – one who asserts that international law is a set of rules or the ‘law as it is’, i.e., law as written in the statute books or treaty or what states, following long practice and tradition, accept as law or the courts say is law – will counter this process and normative system-based perspectives as mere policy and politics and not law. From the perspective of the positivist international lawyer, the answer is likely to be ‘NO’ – UNHCR has no obligation to uphold the human rights of how to write an ib essay, refugees – because there is no rule of how to essay conclusion, law in any statute or treaty that explicitly states that UNHCR has a duty to uphold the rights of refugees. This school of thought of international lawyers would emphasize the rights of UNHCR to access refugees and to formulate programmes of action to provide protection to refugees and counterbalance any abuses with some statistical analysis of the overall good to refugees of UNHCR’s work. In other words, the question of upholding the rights of refugees is best addressed to states and not an international organisation such as the how to write essay, UNHCR.

These lawyers and food thesis, realists will speak, for example, about the reality and inevitability of encampment of refugees and the need to improve conditions inside them. Any other ideas will be dumped into the dustbin of ‘policy and politics’, which are not part of law. I have problems with these mechanical and state-centred view of law, international or otherwise and an ib conclusion, will state that YES, UNHCR has an obligation to uphold the human rights of refugees whether in situations of encampment as is the case in many countries in the global south, and Africa in particular where refugees, as a matter of black letter law and policy refugees are encamped, or where refugees have chosen to live outside the refugee camps and settlements. If international law is a normative system with ‘authoritative decision-making’ for achieving common values, such as the full enjoyment of food thesis, human rights by refugees as human beings, then the Charter of the United Nations, human rights law, general international law, and the Statute of the Office of the UNHCR read together provide sufficient basis for an ib english essay conclusion asserting that UNHCR has a legal obligation to four essays s travels arthur uphold the rights of how to an ib essay conclusion, refugees and to treat them as human beings and not mere passive victims and recipients of aid, humanitarian or otherwise. The Statute defining the powers and functions of the UNHCR provides a starting point to explaining the obligations of UNHCR to respect and uphold the rights and freedoms of on gulliver arthur e case, refugees. Article 1 of the Statute provides, among other things, that UNHCR ‘shall assume the function of providing international protection, under the auspices of the United Nations, to refugees…’ and Article 8 of the Statute stipulates nine means by which the UNHCR will provide protection to refugees falling under its authority. The provisions of the Statute, read together with United Nations General Assembly resolutions 319 A (IV) of 3 December 1949 and english gcse, 428 (V) of 14 December 1950 that established and defined the powers and activities of the UNHCR can be said to have laid down a ‘system of ordered conduct’ for the High Commissioner, aimed at the ‘achievement of common values’ – the write essay conclusion, protection of the human rights of refugees and helping states to finding solutions to the refugee problem..

These in effect give UNHCR rights as the sole subsidiary organ of the United Nations to provide protection to refugees, which is a universal common goal for food thesis all peoples of the world. The right to provide protection to refugees, however, entails the duty to uphold the rights of refugees. It is not enough for UNHCR to develop procedural standards for states parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention in write an ib english, order to fulfil their obligations for protecting refugees; UNHCR itself must be seen to food thesis respect and how to an ib essay conclusion, uphold the rights of refugees. The drafting history of the Statute suggests that the drafters intended UNHCR to be the guarantor and upholder, for on gulliver s travels arthur e case lack of a better word, of the human rights of refugees as defined by the Statute and later the 1951 refugee Convention and this is clearly captured in the idealism and imagery of the language of some of the members of the respective delegations that debated the draft statute both in the General Assembly of the United Nations and its Third Committee on Social issues. One member of the French delegation to english the United Nations, Mr. Rochefort, while contributing to the debate on the draft statute during the 325 th Meeting of the Fifth Session of the General Assembly, urging other delegates to support the no coursework, establishment of the UNHCR, stated that UNHCR is the ‘new ark, which bears the hope of so many refugees throughout the world…’ The imagery of the ‘new ark’ reminded delegates of the Biblical Noah’s Ark that saved Noah’s family from the an ib english essay, torrential rains and the ensuing floods and conveys a powerful reminder to delegates of the ‘floods’ of human rights abuses that produce refugees and that refugees face in exile and the necessity for establishing an organisation such as UNHCR to guarantee and protect the human rights and freedoms of refugees such as freedom of speech and free press, religion, association, movement, and access to education and health. Crucially, it also means that refugees have the right to participate in all the activities designed for their common good, including challenging policies that proscribe their rights and freedoms.

In the second place, as a matter of international law, UNHCR has a legal obligation to respect and uphold the essay, rights of refugees because it possesses international personality, that is to say, it possesses rights and duties as a distinct legal person.[2] This means that it can sue and be sued although in practice, as will be explained later, it is technically, i.e., in the positivist sense, impossible for how to an ib english refugees to sue UNHCR in courts of law for harm or injury suffered. Another characteristic of possessing personality in international law is responsibility for how to injury or harm caused by the actions and , omissions of an international legal person. While the Statute never explicitly stipulate that UNHCR has international legal personality, we can explain the attribution of how to an ib, international personality to it by reference to the authority and tasks assigned to it in the Statute and subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nation and by analogy to the principles on attribution of international personality to an international organisation enunciated by the ICJ in food thesis, the Reparation for Injuries suffered in service of the United Nation’s case, decided in 1949.[3] In that case, the question of the international legal personality of the United Nations was addressed. The Charter of the United Nations never stipulated anywhere that the United Nations possesses international personality.

The ICJ concluded that the international legal personality of the United Nations, and in effect that of any international organisation, can be deduced by ‘necessary implication’ from its competence, functions, and how to an ib essay conclusion, intention of its creators and on essays s travels, the basis of an ib essay conclusion, this the how to an ib conclusion, Court held that the United Nations has international legal personality of its own distinct from that of the states that brought it into existence. Borrowing from Court’s analysis, UNHCR was created by the General Assembly of the United Nations to how to essay realise a specific set of objectives – provide international protection to refugees and assist states to find solutions to feature magazine story write the refugee problem – and it was given authority to perform tasks on the international plane. The set of activities stipulated in Article 8 of the essay conclusion, Statute necessitate UNHCR to food thesis engage with different actors, both states and non-state actors in order to realise the overarching objectives for which it was created. Thus, Members of the General Assembly of the United Nations can be said, in the words of the Court, to have ‘clothed’ UNHCR ‘with the competence required to enable those functions to be effectively discharged.’[4] It follows that UNHCR has the right to provide international protection to how to english refugees and the duty to an ib english essay conclusion respect and uphold the human rights and freedoms of refugees in the course of discharging its functions. In the essay, third place, international human rights law also impose an obligation on UNHCR to uphold the human rights and freedoms of refugees whether in refugee camps, settlements, or spontaneously settled. From a positivist legal perspective, no such obligation exists because international human rights instruments are treaties between states that agreed to be bound by food thesis them.

For example, the 1951 Refugee Convention assigns rights and write an ib essay, freedoms to refugees and imposes obligations on states party to it to uphold these rights. While it gives UNHCR a supervisory role, it never imposes a direct obligation, as it has done with states, on UNHCR to uphold the rights of feature write, refugees. But from a normative perspective, namely, a perspective of international law as a normative system of ordered conduct that is harnessed to achieve a common value, in this case, the upholding of the human rights and how to write an ib english essay, freedoms of refugees, UNHCR has a legal obligation to how to write an ib english essay conclusion uphold the human rights and freedoms of refugees as human beings with dignity. From this view point, the Charter of the United Nations and the international human rights instruments are not just a set or system of rules applicable only to states but a ‘system of normative conduct’, regarded as obligatory and on construction, binding on all those vested with authority and power – whether state or international organisations – for which any departures from the norm or its violations carries a cost. Indeed, the preambular language of the Charter reflects this perspective: “We the peoples of the United Nations. determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of how to an ib essay, war, which in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal right of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in dissertations, larger freedom…” This statement of the experiences of the peoples of United Nations and their determination to work towards a peaceful world anchored on faith in human rights, is then followed with specific purposes for the new Organisation articulated in Article 1; one of gcse, which is the ‘promotion and write an ib, encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all,’ of course including refugees. It follows that all actors, the United Nations, States, and other international organisations, including UNHCR, must uphold the rights and freedoms of , refugees as intrinsic, inherent, inalienable to their full growth and an ib english conclusion, development as human beings in all circumstances. This view of write essay, UNHCR’s obligation to uphold the human rights and freedoms of refugees differ significantly with some writers who see a limited obligation based on ‘particular circumstances of UNHCR’s exercise of its international legal personality.’[5] Crucially, UNHCR’s obligation to uphold the how to english essay, human rights and freedoms of refugees is further reinforced by its control over the camps and settlements.

In theory governments in many of the countries in the global south are in charge but the practice is different. In camps that I visited in Tanzania and Kenya in the autumn of 2008, and on guernica, my own experiences with the refugee protection situation in Uganda, there are all the appearances of the governments of these countries being in charge but as one gets into the camp and starts to observe and essay conclusion, interact with refugees, government, and UNHCR officials, the evidence of UNHCR operational control exercised over refugees and essay, camps becomes apparent: it finances most of the programmes in an ib english essay conclusion, the camps – water, health, education, security, and shelter – and all vehicles whether donated for the use of government officials or implementing partners bear not only its emblem but also unique number plates. And while one may need a clearance from government to enter the camp, UNHCR is the real gatekeeper into article magazine newspaper story these closed cloisters. In some camps, it must approve permissions for refugees to leave the camp. It actually exercises operational control over all activities in the refugee camps and how to write an ib essay conclusion, settlements. These indicia of UNHCR’s operational control exercised over four s travels arthur the camps entail obligations in international law and one of these is to uphold the rights and write an ib english essay conclusion, freedoms of refugees. UNHCR recently appears to recognise the centrality of upholding the human rights of refugees to the performance of its functions. In, for example, its 2006 manual, Operational Protection in Refugee Camps and Settlements, a reference guide that ‘seeks to improve implementation of protection’ and ‘strengthening our working relationships with refugee women, men, girls, and boys as active and essays on gulliver, respected partners, who contribute to how to an ib essay conclusion and take part in the decisions regarding their protection and future lives,’[6] UNHCR emphasizes ‘a rights-based approach’ as a crucial methodology of english no coursework, realising the protection of refugees. It states that ‘In a rights-based approach, human rights principles guide all programming in all aspects of the programming process, including assessment and analysis, programme design (including setting goals, objectives, and strategies); implementation, monitoring and evaluation.’[7] While these are positive developments, as with all other manuals published in the past on refugee protection – on refugee women, children, and unaccompanied minors – for example, practice remains far from the rhetoric. In the refugee camps in Tanzania and Kenya, refugees I interviewed strongly felt that their rights and freedoms were not being fully upheld by UNHCR.

Take, for how to write an ib english conclusion example, participation by refugees in decision-making processes in crucial areas of their lives, such as repatriation, education, and freedom of movement and choice of residence. While acknowledging that they are sometimes invited by UNHCR to come to meetings, these meetings simply serve as place for UNHCR to inform refugees of decisions already taken by UNHCR, in how to write, collaboration with the government and implementing partners. Interviewees gave examples: to get refugees to start thinking about repatriations, the closure of secondary schools and small businesses, the reduction of food rations,[8] restrictions on freedom of movement, and delays in obtaining movement permits, arbitrary decisions and essay, actions especially in refugee status determination or assessments of security threats or risks to individuals, and the lack of effective mechanisms for how to essay conclusion appealing negative decisions. In addition, refugees organising themselves into associations or free press often face hostility far greater from english gcse, UNHCR staff than sometimes government organs.[9] In the face of violation of their human rights and freedoms by UNHCR, can refugees seek the intervention of, for example, local courts? The General Counsel of the United Nations, in the current climate of the dominance of positivist legal thinking, within the United Nations, and international lawyers wary of ‘interference’ in the internal affairs of the United Nations, will answer ‘no’ citing the relevant article of the Charter of the United Nations (Art.105 (1)) and the Convention on the Immunities and Privileges of the United Nations on its privileges and immunities. Any attempt by write an ib english essay conclusion a refugee to do so in a national court following an injury or harm suffered resulting from the acts, action, and omissions of UNHCR will be swiftly followed by a letter from that office to remind the relevant court about the jurisdictional immunity of the United Nations and all its organs, including subsidiary organs such as UNHCR, that operate in the international plane as independent legal persons. In spite of this, I would still conclude that UNHCR has an essays on gulliver s travels arthur e case obligation to uphold the human rights and freedoms of refugees. It would, borrowing from the International Court of Justice in english essay, the Effect of Awards of Compensation made by the United Nations Administrative Tribunal case, ‘hardly be consistent with the on construction, expressed aim of the how to an ib english essay conclusion, Charter to promote freedom and justice for individuals and with constant preoccupation of the United Nations Organisation to promote this aim’[10] if UNHCR were not to uphold the dissertations on construction, rights and freedoms of refugees and to be held accountable by refugees where it causes harm or injury to write essay conclusion a refugee or a group of refugees.

[1] See, Higgins, R., Problems Processes: International Law and How We Use it, 1994. [2] There are writers, especially those with United Nations work experience, who would dispute this assertion, arguing that UNHCR does not possess separate personality from that of the United Nations. On this aspect, see, e.g., P.C. Szasz, “The Complexification of the United Nations System”, 3 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations law (1999) 6. [3] See, Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the services of the United Nations [1949] ICJ Rep. 174. [5] See, e.g., Wilde R., ‘ Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?: Why and How UNHCR Governance of “Development” Refugee Camps Should be Subject to International Human Rights Law’, 1 Yale Human Rights Development L.J (1998)107, 119. [6] See, UNHCR, Operational Protection in write english essay, Refugee Camps and Settlements: A reference guide of good practices in the protection of refugees and on construction, other persons of concern, Geneva, Switzerland 2006. [8] When there is no alternative source of how to an ib english essay conclusion, getting food in the camps. [9] From my interaction with UNHCR in on gulliver arthur e case, Uganda, there are individual staff within UNHCR who not only subscribe to the ideals of incorporating human rights into the work of the organisation, they actually, often at essay great risk, including risk to their jobs, uphold the rights and freedoms of refugees rather than following operational imperatives in conflict with refugee rights and freedoms. [10] See, Effect of Awards of Compensation made by english gcse the UN Administrative Tribunal [1954] I.C.J Reports, 47, 57. Could you possibly give me a contact e-mail for Zachary Lomo.

I would like to make contact during a term at Cambridge. loved the essay. loved the essay. Inspired. Refugees are humans-unless this reality is understood,the refugees’ problem will never get solved.It is hatred between two groups of people that is causing refugees.Hatred between the Assad regime and the opposition has made a section of Syrians refugees and they are taking shelter in foreign countries.Hared between Israelis and magazine newspaper story, Palestinians has made Palestinians refugees in Gaza strip etc.The main fact is hatred among the english essay conclusion, people needs to be gone.

In exercising a refugee free press, we speak in respect of human rights and the rule of law in order to create a more open society in refugee camps and to develop a platform for fair public debate on refugee affairs.

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The Great Debate Around Cycling Helmet Laws. Nothing has been more hotly debated or more polarizing than the debate about the merits of mandatory bike helmet laws. In the global cycling community, nothing has been more hotly debated or more polarizing than the debate about the merits of mandatory helmet laws. Carla Danley is a former emergency room nurse who has seen her fair share of head injuries. How To Write Essay Conclusion. She has also been a daily bicycle rider since 2009 when, at age 50, she moved to Portland, OR, and launched headlong into four essays s travels e case, the city’s vibrant bike scene. In Portland, bicycling verges on the mainstream.

Danley is one of many who choose to wear a helmet every time they ride. How To Write An Ib Essay. “It’s in my marriage contract,” she said. Her husband lost his teenage sister after she was struck by a car while on a cross-Canada bike trip. English Gcse No Coursework. “One of the things I give him credit for is: when we moved to Oregon, I was like, ‘I’m going to get rid of my car and ride a bike’, and he has always been behind me 100 percent,” she said. “But he is really clear that he wants me to use bike lights at night and how to an ib conclusion, have a helmet on all the food thesis, time. And I’m good with that.” Across the globe, in Western Australia, Sue Abbott, a 50-year-old mother of four who has cycled for transportation for 46 years, has never worn a bike helmet. Even after 1991 when Australia became the first country to pass a mandatory helmet law for both adults and how to write an ib english essay, children, she rode helmet-free, an act that soon earned her a stiff ticket. Abbott emerged victorious last August from a string of court battles over feature magazine newspaper research story write her right to cycle bare-headed in her town of Scone, New South Wales.

Aiding her suit was the english, embattled and contradictory state of scientific research on the efficacy of bike helmets for safety. Since the bike helmet question is one of the an ib essay, most fiercely debated and polarized issues in write english essay, transportation bicycling, the question is, which is more important: personal freedom or a precautionary approach that mandates defensive cycling? Should the government step in to enforce head protection or should the onus be on write an ib essay conclusion, the individual? The science around bike helmets is murky, but the political philosophies in how to write english, question are sharply delineated. A Brief History of Helmets and Cycling Laws. For much of the history of the bicycle there were no helmets, only an ib english essay protective leather caps occasionally worn by food thesis bike racers, motorists, aeronauts, rugby players, and mountaineers. Helmets, as we know them today, did not exist until 1975, when Bell Sports introduced the how to an ib english conclusion, first polystyrene model to the United States market. First constructed to protect the write essay, skull by crushing on impact, there has been little aesthetic or material innovation in how to an ib english, their design until recent years. Now, in no coursework, North America, fanciful or sleek helmet shells with minimal venting, such as those made by Nutcase and Bern, are becoming popular among everyday cyclists.

In Europe, the Ribcap – a knit hat with soft inserts that harden on impact – is all the rage for bicycling and write an ib essay, skiing. Are Bicycle Helmets Holding Us Back? The first mandatory bicycle helmet laws that went into s travels arthur, effect in how to write conclusion, California in 1987 and New York in 1989 applied only to young children who were passengers on a bike. . Since then, bicycle helmet laws passed across North America and the world mostly govern children under 16 years of age. These laws are increasingly contentious. In Tel Aviv, an attempt to dissertations on construction repeal existing helmet laws is being fought as fiercely as successful attempts to impose them in Vancouver, WA, which passed an all-ages helmet law last year. Northern Ireland, Chicago, IL, and Minneapolis, MN, are all considering instituting mandatory helmet laws for children under the age of 16.

Mexico City may have had the shortest-lived helmet law – it was passed in 2009 and repealed a year later in the face of intense opposition. Cycling helmet-clad and how to english, helmet-less in Oxford, UK. Photo by Tejvan Pettinger. Pro-helmet advocates compare helmets to seat belts – a common sense response to a known safety problem. They have at their service a wealth of data. In the magazine newspaper research writing, US, head trauma is the cause of over half of bicycle-related fatalities, with survival of serious crashes strongly linked to helmet use. Also to the point, helmet laws have been shown to an ib be more effective than education campaigns at getting helmets on heads. Opponents of helmet laws see them as a barometer of a society’s regard for personal freedom. They point to research finding that helmets do not in fact protect wearers in the most common types of bicycle crashes, which result in scrapes and other injuries to the arms and legs.

In some cases, research shows that helmets might even cause brain injuries as a result of the mechanical twisting effect that occurs upon impact. Others insist that helmet laws lead to more dangerous bicycling conditions. A British traffic psychologist used sensors to write an ib english essay discover that when he biked to work without a helmet, passing drivers gave him more room on the road – though not as much room as when he wore a flowing wig! Australia experienced a drop in no coursework, bicycle use after its helmet law came into effect. Common sense might lead one to write believe that this is a good thing, that fewer bicyclists would mean fewer injuries. But studies worldwide have repeatedly shown the opposite to english gcse be true: the more people ride bikes, the safer bicycling becomes. This phenomenon is called “Safety in Numbers.” Its core principle is that people on write an ib conclusion, bikes rely largely on the kindness of strangers for their safety – the ones whizzing past them in their cars. Write An Ib Conclusion. As more people ride, drivers become more skilled, tolerant and aware of the presence of cyclists, making roads safer for people on bikes – and for four on gulliver s travels arthur, everyone else, too, for essay, that matter. The popularity of public bike sharing systems raises another issue around mandatory bicycle helmet laws: how to have both at the same time?

City leaders worldwide are discovering the appeal of self-service kiosks where bicycles can be rented cheaply for short trips. How To Write English Essay. Bike share systems are an affordable way to boost bicycle mode share and safety nearly overnight. But no feasible means has yet been found to incorporate helmets into such schemes, leaving all-ages helmet law cities, such as Vancouver, BC, struggling to find a way to reap the rewards of a public bike system. It isn’t just cycling helmet laws that face growing opposition. Increasingly, helmets themselves have come under fire. Mikael Colville-Andersen, a cycling advocate and marketing consultant in Denmark, took the cultural battle to the next level in a highly publicized speech called “Why we shouldn’t wear bike helmets.” In his TEDx talk, viewable on YouTube, Colville-Andersen associates helmets with what he calls a “culture of fear.” Helmet use, he said, sends the write english, message that bicycling is dangerous. We’d laugh at how to write english conclusion wearing helmets for other daily activities that carry a significant risk of head injury, such as walking, driving, bathing and using stairs. Why, he asked, is bicycling singled out as dangerous? Debra Rolfe, an American-British urban planning master’s student in Vancouver, BC, agreed. North America’s helmet culture is the worst, she said. “It’s like complete strangers walking up to you and lecturing you about how what you’re eating for food thesis, lunch is going to write an ib essay kill you.”

“Most societies in the developed world spend far more money on inactivity-related illnesses than they do on trauma care,” she added. “We should be doing everything we possibly can to save lives by getting people to exercise.” Ultimately, Rolfe calls helmets “an unfortunate distraction from the real major safety issue affecting cyclists: Cars. Whether or not individuals choose to wear bike helmets is irrelevant, but the cycling community in North America spends a huge amount of time debating it, when it could be doing so much more to improve conditions.” But Should I Wear a Bike Helmet, Seriously? When it comes down to it, the decision about whether or not to how to an ib don a helmet is often less about scientific studies, political philosophies or even laws, and more about how to write an ib, one’s beliefs and how to an ib, sense of safety, or lack thereof, on the road. Elena Findley-de Regt, 29, a Dutch-American citizen who has lived and cycled in the Netherlands, the US, Spain and, now, the UK, has observed a wide range of helmet customs. “When I’m cycling in the Netherlands,” she said, “I don’t wear a helmet, never have and wouldn’t dream of it.” There, she feels that riding is safe, thanks to “very minimal interaction with motor vehicles due to separated bike paths” and a “critical mass of cyclists with generally low overall riding speeds.” And there’s a cultural element. “The Dutch tend to have a pragmatic approach to most things in life – the simplest answer is most likely the research story, best. Fussing with a helmet is an extra, unnecessary step.” “Philosophically,” she said, “I believe that cycling should be such a normal, integrated part of transportation infrastructure that no special equipment is required.” But when riding in write english essay conclusion, any other country, she wears a helmet. “This has a lot to do with my confidence in the riding conditions, and especially my trust in other road users to behave appropriately.”

Habitual use and cultural norms, as well as compelling personal stories, influence helmet beliefs. Ellen Jacobson said that her husband, also a fervent helmet advocate, began wearing one only dissertations on construction when they became mainstream in english conclusion, the 1980s. How To Write English Conclusion. She doesn’t recall exactly when he made the transition, but does remember that he began wearing a ski helmet after the highly publicized skiing death of Sunny Bono in 1998. One perspective that seems capable of bringing about agreement across the fiery lines of the helmet debate is equity. Ellen Jacobson, who coordinates the Kiwanis Club’s bicycle program in Sparks, NV, is a true helmet believer, having devoted much of the past decade to bicycle safety programs for kids. But she wants to make one thing clear: “I am against having a helmet law in Nevada. Most of the kids who don’t wear helmets are extremely low income. If you fine them, what you’re really doing is taking food off the table. And the fine doesn’t put a helmet on their heads.” Carla Danley, the former ER nurse, leans instinctively towards supporting an all-ages helmet law. “I think it almost has to be something that’s legislated so that people are fined,” she mused, quickly adding the how to write conclusion, caveat, “but I’d be concerned about certain populations being targeted more than others.” It seems we have reached a decisive moment in the history of urban cycling.

If the pro helmet faction wins, it’s likely that we will see mandatory helmet laws sweeping across Canada and the US. If, on the other hand, the pro-choice group wins, existing helmet laws will soon be abolished, potentially changing the on gulliver e case, face of cycling in english essay, those cities that currently require helmet use by law. There is a lot riding on this debate, and it’s unlikely to fade into the distance anytime soon. This article was originally published in 2011 and has been updated. Your article is riddled with rumors, misstatements and on construction, untruths. There is NOT a SINGLE study showing bike helmets protect from trauma. Bike helmets are not designed to protect from trauma.

Bike helmets are designed to protect your head from minor injuries due to contact with other items while riding. On Construction. This statement is an outright fabrication. Write An Ib Essay. “In the US, head trauma is the cause of over on guernica half of bicycle-related fatalities, with survival of serious crashes strongly linked to dissertations helmet use.” No recognized scientific study has ever supported this. Want better proof, no bicycle helmet manufacturer would say this. In fact, look at all the marketing for bicycle helmets. If bicycle helmets protected your head don’t you think the bicycle helmet manufactures would say so? Don’t you think they would advertise that fact. An Ib English Essay. NO BICYCLE HELMET MANUFACTURER STATES A HELMET WILL PROTECT YOU HEAD.

Why, because they don’t want to be sued when the bicycle helmet wont, can’t and an ib essay, will not protect your head. I know. I am a member of ASTM F08.53 Headgear and write an ib essay conclusion, Helmets committee. I am the US representative to the UIAA which creates standards for helmets in on guernica, outdoor sports in write english conclusion, Europe. Bike helmets are not designed and do not protect from trauma. For many years now, I have worn a helmet, and food thesis, sworn by them. About ten years or so ago, I crashed my bike on black ice. How To Write An Ib Essay Conclusion. Thank God I was wearing a helmet that day, I could swear that it saved my life. If I am going anywhere by food thesis bike, I always, without fail, put on my helmet!

Yeah, sure the helmets are safer for kids but 12 and up I don’t feel it is nessassary. I bet its better to wear one but I feel higher without one like I make my 6 year old but I force my 13 not to one we feel the how to write english essay conclusion, same way. I believe you failed to fairly treat the dissertations, scientific evidence question of this matter seriously. The best, most recent studies show that helmet use provides very little protection, and at best neutral outcomes when it comes to preventing head injuries let alone improved public health. Even the very pro helmet magazine Bicycling published and article with the byline that the science shows helmets do not prevent concussions. Can’t link directly but it seems the CBC interviewed the author here: Hope Hedy Fry reads this. In my opinion we have to article newspaper research write build better roads and write essay, severely punish the driver of any vehicle, mostly cars, that operate said vehicle in a manner where they might endanger others. Everyone pro and con needs to look at the testing standard and how that that to the real world. 150 Joules of energy against a flat surface, the current CPSC’s current testing criteria is a very nominal blow to four e case absorb before failing. The standard when helmets first appeared was over 300 Joules but the helmet manufactures fought to lower the standard so that they could sell more product.

Yeah unfettered capitalism. What other product, safety or otherwise is half as capable today than in 1990? As for how to an ib english, Carla Danley’s sister in law I’m sorry for her and her husbands loss, I don’t know the circumstances of that accident but if it’s like virtually all car caused bike fatalities a helmet would not have zero difference, to use that as reasoning to enforce their preferred pieces of safety equipment when there is no evidence to support its efficacy has no place in a free and moral society. No helmet can **prevent** a concussion, but helmets can substantially reduce the risk of a concussions. Yes, there are improvements to be made (such as improved handling of rotational forces), but that does not mean they are useless. It also sounds like you do not understand how helmets attenuate impacts. They don’t reduce the total energy, just the peak force experienced by the brain. Reducing peak force makes the impact imminently more survivable as it puts it in the range the brain can handle. Finally, what is right for an ib english conclusion, an individual may not make sense at the population level, but just because a general effect is not observed at the population level does not mean there isn’t a benefit for the individual. This is called an ecological fallacy and it really muddies the water when people talk about the how to english, efficacy of helmets. Well I don’t know what your credentials are but this quote from the CBC link above from renowned neurosurgeon Charles Tator who treats individuals with major head trauma should clear things up for you; “Current bike helmets, Tator says, “are pretty well useless in attenuating rotational acceleration” in how to essay, the previous paragraph he explains that it is rotational forces that cause major brain injuries so yeah the four essays, thing that you call a bike helmet which is really just 50 cents of Styrofoam formed into a sporty hat can only how to english provide minimal protection again bruises, contusion and essay, minor skull fractures and is of no help, and can (actually has in Australian and dissertations on construction, New Zealand but I’ll save that for later) very well worsen brain injury by either not mitigating and or magnifying rotational forces or leading people to behave more recklessly through the phenomena of “risk compensation” and write an ib english conclusion, getting into how to write an ib essay conclusion, accidents that they would not have otherwise.

So that’s how helmets work, if you want to an ib essay conclusion actually be informed the next time you post on this topic you should read “The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury” by WJ Curnow published here; As for how to an ib essay conclusion, helmet functionality and capacity here is an excellent overview by Brian Walker one of the leading experts on the mechanics of helmets, and whose company Head Protection Evaluations is the principal UK test laboratory for helmets and head protection systems of all kinds. The linked pdfs from the defunct magazine Cycle are an excellent read and will explain bicycle helmets in simple terms that you should be able to understand. You can believe the available science or you can believe what your amygdala tells you but if it’s fear that you choose to base your decisions on how to write an ib essay conclusion, you have no right to expect or worse demand that others also act irrationally on unfounded fear with no supporting evidence. Well I don’t know what your credentials are but this quote from the CBC link above from renowned neurosurgeon Charles Tator who treats individuals with major head trauma should clear things up for you; “Current bike helmets, Tator says, “are pretty well useless in attenuating rotational acceleration” in the previous paragraph he explains that it is rotational forces that cause major brain injuries so yeah the thing that you call a bike helmet which is really just 50 cents of Styrofoam formed into a sporty hat can only gcse provide minimal protection again bruises, contusion and minor skull fractures and is of no help, and write an ib, can (actually has in Australian and dissertations, New Zealand but I’ll save that for later) very well worsen brain injury by how to write an ib essay either not mitigating and or magnifying rotational forces or leading people to behave more recklessly through the phenomena of “risk compensation” and getting into dissertations, accidents that they would not have otherwise.

So that’s how helmets work, if you want to actually be informed the next time you post on this topic you should read “The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury” by WJ Curnow published here; As for how to an ib english essay conclusion, helmet functionality and english no coursework, capacity here is an excellent overview by Brian Walker one of the leading experts on how to english conclusion, the mechanics of helmets, and whose company Head Protection Evaluations is the principal UK test laboratory for helmets and head protection systems of all kinds. The linked pdfs from the defunct magazine Cycle are an excellent read and will explain bicycle helmets in simple terms that you should be able to understand. You can believe the available science or you can believe what your amygdala tells you but if it’s fear that you choose to base your decisions on you have no right to expect or worse demand that others also act irrationally on how to an ib conclusion, unfounded fear with no supporting evidence. There is data to show that helmets do NOT prevent concussion. How To Write An Ib Essay Conclusion. I always wear a helmet, but do not believe that a flimsy styrafoam shell can effectivly prevent concusions. On Guernica. I believe that some head protection in an accident is better than none, so I always wear a helmet. But, my personal choice should NOT be regulated by safety advocates, insurance lobbyist, and how to write an ib conclusion, safety nazis.

The day that the on construction, make helmets mandatory in write conclusion, my city or state is when I will burn my helmet in front of city hall. Despite support from the , Spanish government, the Spanish parliament rejected mandatory helmets for adults two years ago after hearing evidence on the negative effects in Australia and listening to write an ib essay conclusion testimony strongly criticising mandatory helmet laws from a representative of the World Health Organisation. Bravo. A law can’t distinguish between a fast athletic rider (racer or “road rider) and someone pootling to english gcse the shops on how to an ib essay conclusion, an old 3-speed. . . . Four Essays On Gulliver S Travels E Case. There is no difference between the fast racer and the slow recreational cyclist … both fall at the same speed and hit the write an ib, pavement just as hard. The laws of Nature (gravity vertical acceleration) cannot be disobeyed. You are not invincible. . You’re a human being that can fall by yourself without anyone around. English Essay. No car around. I’ve fallen 8 times off my bike in on construction, the last 25 years of regular cycling. I’m car-free.

7 times on black ice/snow in how to write an ib english essay, winter and there were no cars around. 8th time, latest…I was knocked down this past New Year’s DAy, while cycling because another cyclist who was cycling too fast when he crashed into english, after I turned a corner on the Vancouver Seaside-Seawall path. (in Yaletown) I have no memory of the accident, cyclist, his bike, nor being transported by ambulance to the hospital. My partner (a very well-known Vancouver cycling advocate) was riding 10 metres ahead of me, when he heard a huge awful crash behind me. I awoke in the hospital in pain, with my partner and physician bending over me, testing my memory. I lost my memory for how to write english conclusion, about 4-5 hrs. after the accident/injury. I was tested for my memory for another 3 times over a 24 hr. Article Feature Magazine Newspaper Story Write. period. This how much vigilance must occur. Then after Jan. 1, 2015, day of my crash, I spent 2 months on disability leave from how to write an ib english essay work, lying in bed at how to english home, for how to english essay, my brain to heal. During this time, I needed to walk with someone outside. My family physician and sister-emergency medicine doctor (who practices in Ontario and sees concussion often enough) instructed me on no computer screen time since computer screen movement/flickering is tiring on , brain.

I was too my partner (Jack) did 90% of all the cooking, housework and 100% of all grocery shopping during those 2 months. I could not move around even in the kitchen… Your brain dictates every movement of your limbs, what you see/recognize, what you hear, etc. Dissertations On Construction. Otherwise your body is a vegetable. Please remember this. Do NOT be caveliar, brash about essay, cycling style, pay attention to traffic signals..

If you consult the medical literature, please remember if you have several concussions in dissertations on construction, a lifetime…it is cumulative. You don’t get “stronger”. And it isn’t merely hit on the pavement, it can be simply rapid, whiplash action which the brain knocks against the skull. A friend of mine has a concussion from essay a car accident when her car was rear-ended. That all said: I have returned to’s been a slow process. One has to just rebuild some confidence. And why not? If a driver was in an accident, do a lot of them stop driving? One factor of danger, that is super real that never existed 25 years ago, is now problem of distracted car drivers on their cell phones, etc. On Construction. Pay attention to all drivers. Don’t trust them completely.

I don’t anymore. But then, I no longer rely on other cyclists to ring their bell or shout that they are behind me, etc. What you read about the concussions of hockey players, football players and soccer players….it’s the same thing..but sometimes worse. I was lucky my vision, etc. was not affected at all. The back of head, could have hit the how to write conclusion, pavement but it was my helmet that blunted it….although the english essay, tightening disc dug abit into my scalp that I bled abit on dissertations on construction, the hospital pillow. Thanks for your anecdote, but that is all it is, an how to essay, anecdote, and as we all know, the plural of anecdote is not data. Sure.

More of a warning not to take your own invincibility for granted, Richard. My partner also had a mild concussion in how to write conclusion, 2010, when another cyclist crashed into him about half km. west of same area where I had my crash. His helmet was destroyed. He was examined in emergency services at hospital. English No Coursework. Cyclist bought him a new helmet. He recently met anther cycling advocate in Vancouver, within last 24 months…she had crashed and he could see the effects on her while he was speaking with her. I am currently working on write english essay, realigning my sleep with help of a sleep doctor-specialist. It’s not worth wasting our effort trying to convince people not to wear helmets. Car lovers love this type of distraction …where more needs to spent on cycling infrastructure for safety. Jean, you sure do seem to fall off your bike quite a bit.

Have you thought of maybe taking a bicycle skills class? Seven times you hit the pavement on ice, you’d think an “experienced” rider would learn after the first fall to change your gear, ie studded tires, or take public transportation seeing as you feel no need for an automobile. How To An Ib. It seems in your case you may be safer driving in winter than risking that smart brain of yours to a flimsy piece of plastic. Good riding skills and following traffic laws, we cyclists are by law a legal vehicle, equals safer riding. I live is South Georgia where cyclists are as rare as a DoDo bird and the population believes “real” sports involve obnoxious four wheel drive trucks, fishing poles or guns. Come down here and ride, you quickly realize that a bicycle helmet will be the least of your worries. And for the record I’ve been cycling for 27 years and have been hit once by a motor vehicle while stationed in how to write english conclusion, Germany.

The Polizei treat car/bike crashes like a crime scene and it was swiftly determined that the driver of the motor vehicle that hit me was at fault 100%. The danger is drivers not bicycles. Unless you fall down frequently. “Helmets, as we know them today, did not exist until 1975, when Bell Sports introduced the first polystyrene model to the United States market. First constructed to protect the skull by crushing on impact, there has been little aesthetic or material innovation in how to an ib conclusion, their design until recent years.” The helmet went through tremendous evolution well before the last few years. Early helmets were terribly heavy (the venerable Bell V1 Pro comes to mind). In the late ’80s they cut the weight of helmets by more than half.

By the mid ’90s they’d dramatically improved the ventilation. Then they introduced the adjustable retention system (such as the dial you see on the back of so many helmets) by the early 2000s. Massive innovation began well before the halfway mark of the write an ib conclusion, helmet and gcse no coursework, continues to this day. Whatever one’s opinion on helmets, it’s factually incorrect to say that they have evolved little until recently. “In some cases, research shows that helmets might even cause brain injuries as a result of the mechanical twisting effect that occurs upon impact.” Many new helmets have MIPS, or another anti-concussion system, that compensates for this, reducing concussion and mechanical twisting effects. I have one myself for this very concern. As prices come down, this argument becomes increasingly irrelevant.

“Others insist that helmet laws lead to more dangerous bicycling conditions. An Ib Conclusion. A British traffic psychologist used sensors to essay on guernica discover that when he biked to work without a helmet, passing drivers gave him more room on the road – though not as much room as when he wore a flowing wig!” What “sensors”? The only study along these lines that I found had a British psychologist doing what you discussed, and write an ib english essay conclusion, then recording his *perception* of the birth he was given, which is hardly scientific. Do you have a link to this study? I couldn’t find it. And the how to english, related one I found is in disrepute. “In his TEDx talk, viewable on YouTube, Colville-Andersen associates helmets with what he calls a “culture of fear.” Helmet use, he said, sends the message that bicycling is dangerous.” This seems like an spurious argument when car companies spend millions of dollars every year bragging about the safety features they add (air bags, ABS, crumple zones, you name it), all without the average person seeming to be concerned that all cars are deathtraps.

I recommend updating the article as some of the above quotes are misleading, or straight-out incorrect. 15 seconds of googleing took me to this article in the BBC; Furthermore here is a long list of peer reviewed science in respected academic journals that might, if you’re open to a reasoned argument, lead you to question your sacrosanct belief in the efficacy of bike helmets. At lot of the , links no longer connect but 15 seconds max of googling the study title and author will take you to the journal page where these studies are published. I’m totally against helmet laws and bicycle helmets. My head still hurts 2.5 years after being hit by a car. I am thankful every day that it was my helmet smashed all over the road and not my skull. One elementary aspect is omitted in essay conclusion, this piece; Risk compensation. People who wear a helmet will tend to feel safer in food thesis, traffic.

This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc. All in all someone who wears a helmet, will be more likely to get in how to english, an accident in the first place. That would be okay, if the essays s travels e case, helmet provided extraordinary increased safety, like the seatbelt does for how to write english essay conclusion, car drivers, it does not. Article Research Story Write. It provides no increased safety in accidents where the other part is a car. Helmets are only beneficial at speeds below 20 km/h and in write english, collisions with other cyclists, pedestrians and individual accidents. Risk compensation are scientifically researched and well documented on many issues, from motor sports, ordinary car drivers to helmet use in American football. The safer you feel the higher risks you take. In Denmark, bicyclists (about 25%) who uses a helmet and are involved in serious accidents, far outweighs bicyclist who did not.

Indicating bicyclists who use a helmet do get in , much more serious accidents in the first place. The countries with the least helmet use The Netherlands and Denmark, who also both have the how to write an ib, best infrastructure for bikes, also have the least serious accidents per million km driven. And we are remarkably better than any other country. Infrastructure saves lifes, helmets does not. In Denmark the risk of getting killed per trip, per on guernica hour in traffic and per km driven is on write an ib, par with car drivers/passengers, whereas motorcyclists and pedestrians have many times higher risks. According to australian research 50% of car drivers/passengers killed, die due to head trauma.

The total number of killed are dominated by car drivers/passengers. Write An Ib Essay Conclusion. Cyclists who are killed, die due to four e case full body trauma, getting hit by an ib english essay a car at high speeds (50 km/h+) and slow driving trucks, primarily accidents, where a plastic coveres styrofoam helmet would mitigate nothing. If cyclists should wear a helmet, car drivers/passengers certainly should too, and pedestrians should wear both helmets, a backshield and preferably a full exoskeleton. “Risk compensation. Food Thesis. People who wear a helmet will tend to feel safer in traffic. This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc.”

If you’re right, then wouldn’t this argue against how to write an ib english conclusion, the idea that promoting helmet use suggests bikes are unsafe? Wouldn’t people who wear helmets be the ones buying in most deeply to the idea that bikes are incredibly unsafe? Wouldn’t that make them the most vigilant drivers on the road? You can’t have it both ways. One of those anti-helmet arguments is likely incorrect. As for: “This feeling of relative increased safety will reduce their vigilance in write an ib english conclusion, traffic, they will go faster, read others in traffic less attentively, look over their shoulders a little less etc.” Please take the word “will” out of each sentence and replace with “may”. I wear a helmet, and I ride as if *no one on the road can see me*. So your argument may or may not be true in general, but it appears to not be universally true as your lack of qualifiers suggests.

“In Denmark, bicyclists (about 25%) who uses a helmet and are involved in serious accidents, far outweighs bicyclist who did not. Indicating bicyclists who use a helmet do get in much more serious accidents in the first place.” It may or may not mean that. Perhaps people who use helmets are disproportionately likely to be new cyclists, as opposed to seasoned veterans, as one of dozens of possible alternate explanations. “Infrastructure saves lifes, helmets does not.” Just because infrastructure can also save lives does not prove helmets can’t as well. The two aren’t mutually exclusive.

If even one life was saved with a helmet in , the history of the how to essay, world, then you can’t say helmets don’t save life. And I am one of many people who believe a helmet saved my life once. “where a plastic coveres styrofoam helmet would mitigate nothing.” Bicycle helmets are not made of plastic covered styrofoam, they’re made of impressive space-age materials that are much stronger than styrofoam. I suggest looking at the recent innovations in helmet design, if this is what you believe helmets are these days. “If cyclists should wear a helmet, car drivers/passengers certainly should too, and pedestrians should wear both helmets, a backshield and preferably a full exoskeleton.”

Whether car drivers/passengers and pedestrians should or should not wear a helmet has little bearing on whether cyclists should or should not. Each should be discussed on food thesis, their own merits, or lack thereof, IMO. . . . I’m a 69-ear-old male, lifetime athlete, living near the write essay, center of a heavily trafficked city (Houston) of few cyclists and an ib essay conclusion, massively violated speed limits. Essay On Guernica. 1975-12-03, age 28, one night (two weeks after buying my first hardshell cycling helmet, a Skid Lid II), in spite of having a front light and wearing bright clothing, I was proceeding at ten meters a second when the last thing I remember was suddenly seeing two pairs of cars’ headlights approaching me, as a drunk driver who was speeding at twenty meters a second had decided to pass a car and english gcse no coursework, pulled out into my side of the write essay conclusion, two-lane street half a second before impacting me. The crumpled bicycle, with front fork bent back to the crankset and road-style handlebars flattened from below (maybe bent from my holding on how to write an ib english, to them), landed about 60 meters behind me. After-crash evidence was that I was pitched forward, the back of my head broke his passenger-side windshield, and how to write english, with broken bones (my right fibula, talus, and ulna, and later surgical removal of a crushed medial meniscus in on construction, my right knee), I was thrown off the top of his car and struck the street several times. Then in shock, I have no memory of the collision, but abrasions on the helmet and damage to the car gave ample evidence. After two weeks in how to write conclusion, the hospital, I was sent home with a full leg cast and a right wrist cast; by March I was down to a lower-leg cast and food thesis, began cycling again.

After removal of that cast, with still-stiff knee and english conclusion, ankle joints, I cycled about 270km in 11 hr. to Austin, Texas, then in April 1976 won a 40-km time trial race in on guernica, exactly 60 minutes. About 20 years later I was impacted from the side at 18 meters a second (broken ribs), and in how to write an ib conclusion, a third life-threatening accident in 2002 was hit from behind at essay 25 meters a second minus my 10 meters a second forward speed, throwing me in a forward summersault (no serious injury, bruised calf muscles from strap-on egg-shaped red blinkers when my legs slapped the how to write essay conclusion, pavement). But in food thesis, spite of these accidents averaging once per decade of nearly daily cycling averaging half an hour a day, I emphasize to how to an ib essay conclusion others it’s vertical speed, not horizontal, that is more likely to cause concussion. Even at slow forward speeds, cracked pavement hidden in a puddle, sand or wet leaves in essay on guernica, a turn, a dog under the front wheel — you never know when you’ll fall. I visited the Skid Lid’s inventor in San Diego in how to write an ib english essay, 1978, but since then under Bell Helmets’ domination, qualifying rules for food thesis, helmets were written so only their type of helmet (solid styrofoam liner) would qualify, driving the Skid Lid out of business. I agree with others that rotational flexibility is needed to dissipate the moment of shearing impacts; the ultimate helmet has yet to be built. I write to overcome the an ib essay, falsehood that helmets are useless in high-speed impacts, since even in those cases the impact is seldom a straight-on deceleration, that would likely cause a broken neck. Write An Ib English Conclusion. Lighter-weight helmets are less neck strain (g-forces can make one’s head momentarily weigh fifty kilos, so even a half-kilo helmet becomes four more kilos on on construction, neck-strain). I also disagree with those who claim helmet-wearers are categorically more complacent; I am ever-vigilant, never wear headphones, and thanks to how to write an ib essay conclusion newly available LED options, my frame and wheel spokes have more red and green blinkers than a Christmas tree!

My headlight or flashlight is never less than 2000 lumens and a couple ones I have exceed 5,000 lumens (you could read a newspaper at gcse 100m distance). Be visible, and ride assertively in traffic (it helps to be able to how to write english essay conclusion maintain 8-10 meters a second, a.k.a. 20mph)! Wearing a helmet is good. Helmets will mitigate a portion of cranial injury should there be a cranial impact.

It may mitigate cranial injury from “100” to “99” (generic injury rating) for severe impacts and it may mitigate injury from 25 to 0. How To Write An Ib. It may save a life, it may save a piece of scalp, and it may only prevent someone from dying only for the person to fall into a persistent vegetative state. What’s important is that it makes cranial impacts less bad. Also, helmets must be fitted, adjusted, and no coursework, worn appropriately for helmet-based cranial injury mitigation to reliably occur. However, helmets do not prevent cranial impacts. Only good cycling and a cooperative cycling environment do that. If you want to write english essay conclusion minimize the risk of cranial impact (and thus cranial injury), be an educated cyclist. (Visible, predictable, and gcse, prepared.) The cheapest and most equitable way to reduce the risk of cranial injury is to help people become better cyclists and drivers while holding both groups accountable for their actions. Here in California, we advocates recently defeated (like within the last month) a mandatory helmet law going through the state legislature. There was very little hullabaloo made about it because it’s so hard to english conclusion fight something enrobed in article feature magazine research story, “safety”.

The general argument against write english essay, the law was this: Mandatory bicycle helmet laws would be bad for food thesis, the effort to increase the number of people bicycling regularly. If helmet use goes mandatory, it would allow for how to an ib english, cycling risk to be compared to motorcycle risk thus vastly exaggerating the risk of cycling more than it already is. Write English Essay. So people who were “interested, but concerned” about article feature magazine research writing, cycling (potential riders) will no longer be interested. Write An Ib English. Those who are riding now without a helmet, may not ride after a mandatory helmet law is enacted. California has made a commitment to reduce GHG emissions from vehicle trips and an ib english essay conclusion, increase physical activity. This law would work against those commitments. I have been wearing a helmet since the ’80s.

In that time helmets have gone from being miserably uncomfortable, to more comfortable than wearing nothing at all due to improvements in fit and ventilation. Nothing keeps you as cool as a helmet, if you get one with impressive air channeling. Essays On Gulliver S Travels. My alternative is to english wear a cycling cap which will significantly hinder ventilation and on guernica, do less than I wish to keep the how to write english essay conclusion, sun off, or to wear a helmet that will both be fantastic at english keeping the how to english, sun off and how to an ib english essay, will channel the how to write english essay, air around my head almost as impressively as if the head were naked. Perhaps we need to start educating people as to gcse how comfortable modern helmets are in concert with helmet law discussions. This is going to kill you to learn this but that uncomfortable helmet you had 30+ years ago was at least twice the capacity to protect your head and as it probably wasn’t aero with fins and english essay conclusion, vent many times less likely to cause a rotational brain injury or neck injury. Statistically, it is drivers who ought to wear helmets, they’re at the highest risk of brain injury. Helmet laws are victim-blaming cop-outs for municipalities who lack the will and common sense to invest in bike infrastructure. I had a road accident last Sunday, helmet protected me from a serius head injury and write an ib english conclusion, now I’m at how to write an ib conclusion home writting this comment, no doubt, we must use it! @Jaime, I too have hit the , deck – more than once over the years.

One time when I was “car-doored” by a driver exiting a parked car, twice when I had front tire blow outs at speed. A fourth time when a truck forced me into trolly tracks. All kinds of situations, only half had anything to do with an altercation with a vehicle. Anyone that has crashed with a helmet, saw how hard your head hit the pavement, saw the damage to the helmet sustained with no damage to your noggin – anyone that has witnessed this, will always wear a helmet. I view people that don’t wear helmets as just inexperienced. I ride everyday to how to write an ib english work (Vancouver) and willingly wear my helmet because of the write english essay conclusion, length of my ride, the speeds at which I ride (downhill on a HUGE bridge) and how to an ib english, the areas I will end up riding (industrial marina). I know these factors add up to a potentially dangerous situation so I take my safety into my own hands and four essays on gulliver s travels e case, wear my helmet. However, I don’t want to be ticketed when my partner and I are just heading out for a nice slow and leisurely ride to dinner without our helmets on.

Luckily I haven’t had any tickets so far, but it shouldn’t be mandatory. I think it should be up to write an ib english essay the individual to know when they need to be wearing a helmet and when they will be fine without one. We are also lucky to have separated bike lanes here in Vancouver, unlike many other cities. I’ve been cycling for about 50 years; (mostly urban utilitarian cycling, some road trips in the pre-helmet era). Article Magazine Write Writing. It would be rather strange to refer to me as “inexperienced”. The other odd thing is why on conclusion, earth is Momentum mag recycling this old article: to sell helmet ads? What we must be fighting for is dedicated bicycle lanes and safer infrastructure for how to write conclusion, pedestrians and cyclists in general, including legal infrastructure (onus on more powerful vehicle). The helmet crap is a distraction. In the Netherlands cyclists wear helmets if they are riding fast to race or train, not to gcse commute to work or university, or to do the shopping. Duh.

Can you prove without a doubt that the how to write an ib english, helmet did in fact save your life? I didn’t think so. Anecdotal evidence is just heresay. Can you prove without a doubt that the article feature magazine newspaper story, helmet did in fact save you from “serious” injury? I didn’t think so.

Anecdotal evidence is just heresay. And besides if you hit the ground hard enough to cause serious injury, your magic helmet wouldn’t have done squat. At best it saved you from some bumps and bruises. I think Mikaels most compelling arguement it the fact that helmet laws have been shown to reduce the number of cyclists in the countries/states where they have been introduced. People who don’t want to wear a helmet simply choose to how to write an ib essay stop riding, going against what it is that we all in here want which is more people cycling. I live in Denmark but come from an ib conclusion New Zealand (Helmet law) I was home recently on holiday and hated having it dictated to me whether I wore a helmet or not. In Denmark I work as a messsenger and wear a helmet, I race in a helmet, and ride in the forest with one on too, but I like the food thesis, fact that when I am not riding like a madman that I can choose not to wear one. I also like the fact that I can go to the pub in the evening and not have to drag a helmet along with me. I guess in this debate you could say that I am pro choice ;o) Yes, the write an ib, research on feature newspaper research writing, brain injury is there and reveals helmet popularity is based more on perception than reality. This review on the ef?cacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury.

describes this research and shows, “The testing and design of standard helmets re?ect the discredited theory that linear acceleration is the dominant cause of brain injury and to how to write english essay neglect rotation.” Focusing on helmets doesn’t make cyclists safer, it results in increased danger to cyclists. The question needs to how to an ib be addressed…..”Will the polystyrene prevent the brain’s sloshing back and forth in the skull…breaking precious neural pathways that we spend our schooldays, careers and lifetimes to form? The parietal, occipital lobes and the corpus callosum are priceless. Hit the ground with your bare head and try to do your job the next day, week, years. It’s been bloody hard. it should be upto me to assess my own risk about wearing or not wearing a helmet. English Conclusion. i find helmets constricting and that they limit my peripheral vision – that’s my personal sense of what a helmet does to me. i would never fine you for wearing a helmet if that’s what makes you feel more secure. I am going to go out on article feature newspaper research story, a limb here and say that I am pleased to see more and more people out for casual rides (not racing) without helmets. It tells me that they feel safe (or at least safer) when they ride. And I may be dreaming, but it’s possible that, as a direct result, we may see a decline in serious accidents involving cars, based on the fairly well established “safety in numbers” effect (more cyclists on the road means fewer, not more accidents – as motorists become accustomed to sharing the road).

My theory is that people are not stupid, and write english essay conclusion, whether they recognize it or not, they constantly assess risk in article newspaper write writing, all their activities, and make hat are generally very rational decisions. That’s why, for example, no one feels vulnerable going to a bar without a helmet, even though walking home from the bar poses a greater risk of traumatic brain injury than cycling in general. Same thing for pedestrians, and even, dare I say, DRIVERS The reason is that most of the key causative factors in accidents in all these activities are within the control of the individual. The individual can rationally decide, based on their own behavior while cycling, drinking, walking, swimming, whatever, whether or not additional protection is worthwhile. I am from Australia, where we have a mandatory all-ages helmet law for 20 years. It has been an unexpected failure at many levels. 1. it reduced cycling, killing casual cycling and leaving mainly the sports cyclists. Cycling is not popular and how to an ib essay, seen mostly as week-end activity, not a mode of transport.

Cyclists are not popular, they are seen as freaks. 2. It has made cycling safety worse. The risk of serious death and dissertations on construction, injuries increased by how to 50%. This is mainly because helmets increase the , risk of accidents, through safety in numbers and risk compensation. Essentially, a 50% increase in accidents cannot be compensated by write a thin layer of polystyrene. 3. It has created a huge animosity among the cyclists, with some sport cyclists who believe that the on guernica, helmet law vindicates their intolerance of cyclists who prefer not to wear a helmet.

The polystyrene hat has become almost a religious fetish, with few people questioning what less than one inch of polystyrene can really do to prevent serious injuries. 4. How To Write Essay. This obsession with helmets has taken away the focus from measures that are far more important for cycling safety, like separation from car traffic, motorists behaviour, cyclists skill training, and reducing the risk of accident. English. Australia is a far more dangerous place to cycle than in Europe where they don’t wear helmets. So why not focus on write an ib english essay, what works instead? The helmet hasn’t worked. It is an embarrassing failure. I would encourage anyone considering supporting to have a good look at magazine newspaper story writing what actually happened in real life, rather than relying on theories that seem “obvious”. This topic is far from how to english essay conclusion obvious . It wasn’t an unexpected failure for me, but I confess I did nothing about the english essay conclusion, proposed laws at the time, as I didn’t believe government could possibly be that stupid.

I now know better. Removing the MHL would be the how to an ib english, easiest and best solution to cycling participation in Australia. The Imams of the plastic hat are as useful as those who tell us burkas are the no coursework, solution to sexual assualt. Yes, indeed. And like forcing women to wear burkas, tchadors or even headscarves by law or pressure from males, it tends to how to write an ib english essay “disappear” the potential victims, rather than controlling aggression from the potential perpetrators, while overlooking measures to ensure safety and respect for cyclists – or women in macho societies. I want to make it clear that I have no problem with devout women wearing headscarves or people who believe in magic hats wearing helmets; it is none of my business.

The problem is when it is a red herring to avoid struggling to create safe envrionments for four arthur e case, all; in this case not only for write an ib essay, cyclists but also for pedestrians, especially vulnerable ones such as the dissertations, very young, the very old and the disabled. I think the larger problem is that statistics can be so misleading. Write English. Frequently you see the claim that in 90% of bicycle fatalities, the essay, rider was not wearing a helmet. This proves nothing. We do not know, for example, what number or percentage would have died anyway from essay on guernica their internal injuries. We don’t know if a helmet would have actually saved any of those fatalities even if there was head trauma. Helmets are physically the equivalent of wearing a bag of popcorn and food thesis, a tupperware bowl on your head. An Ib Essay Conclusion. if that makes you feel safer, be my guest. Where statistics fail is when they are used to make individual decisions, or worse, to force decisions on magazine newspaper story writing, individuals. Remember the hue and cry when the FDA said that breast exams were not useful for women of a certain age? That may have been true statistically, but it was not a solid basis for an individual deciding not to have an exam. Unfortunately, proclamations like that one tend to influence policy and regulation.

For example, It’s not hard to imagine insurance companies refusing to cover exams based on on guernica, such a statistic. How To An Ib Essay Conclusion. But it should be an individual decision. Also, with helmet laws, as repeated many times above, they miss the real issue. Safety begins with the rider’s exercise of care. I have not seen any analysis, but I would not be surprised if a cross-tabulation or a regression analysis showed that helmet use was not the dominant variable in crashes and food thesis, fatalities. Your chance of a fatal or disabling accident is overwhelmingly dominated by how and where you ride. So – Thanks to the author for this balanced perspective, and to how to an ib conclusion all the comments, which were for the most part, civil and thoughtful. Sadly, these discussions too often degenerate into name calling and condescending one liners. Full face motorcycle helmets actually offer a lot more protection than any other helmet. You can strap them on properly and they stay on four essays on gulliver e case, your head in a crash.

The beanie style motorcycle helmets are illegal. How To Write An Ib Conclusion. Yet, they are better built than a bicycle helmet. . It is impossible to strap on a bicycle helmet properly without choking yourself. So, it will give way in a crash. If you put them on children as explained by an ib essay conclusion the experts, kids tend to slip their fingers underneath the strap and pull on it to make it more comfortable. Then it becomes really loose and ineffective.

Seat belts: If cars are forced to go slower and they were actually safe, you would not need a seat belt. But, the accident and injury statistics show how dangerous an automobile really is. Not to mention the detrimental effects caused by pollution and sedentary lifestyle that goes along with the auto culture. To make an argument about refusing to how to write an ib essay conclusion wear a helmet and not get medical coverage; shall we deny treatment to how to write english essay people who smoke, consume alcohol, drugs or unhealthy foods, or refuses to excercise? in spite of the fear that is promoted along with helmets (after all, there has to be a perceived need to wear a helmet) cyclists live longer, and healthier lives than the general population. mandating helmet use results in , less people cycling, poorer health, and shorter life spans.

mandating helmet use has also resulted in write essay conclusion, no less injury or fatalities to cyclists to feature magazine story write writing boot. After witnessing what happened to my friend Len on how to write english, Friday cyclists should always wear helmets. Essay. It really doesn’t matter if you are going slow or fast either. Write An Ib Essay. I for one am totally in favour of mandatory helmet compliance. We have mandatory Seat belt laws, motorcycle helmets, mandatory auto insurance, look it would be great if the goverment wasn’t all of our business, but sometimes it is a necessity and feature newspaper research story write, we are the government! Oh yes, and mandatory Medical Insurance. Write An Ib Conclusion. They could say that if you didn’t wear a helmet, you pay your own hosptial fees but they don’t. You should simply have public health insurance as people do in civilised countries. Sure there are good reasons not to wear a helmet. One is that they can’t provide adequate protection in collisions with motor vehicles.

Many people think they can, but they can’t. Another is wearing a helmet is a sign that cycling is dangerous. Dissertations. It’s not. Another reason is that this perception that cycling is risky, discourages people from how to english riding bikes. It’s not that wearing helmets is wrong, it’s more that the attitude about , helmets is wrong. Wear one if you like but don’t think cycling is more dangerous than it is and don’t think a helmet can do more than it can, and by no means should you disrespect anothers choice to go without a helmet. The safest cyclists in an ib english conclusion, the world don’t use them.

There is simply no good reason NOT to write english essay conclusion wear a helmet- especially in essay, the US where the car is the unfortunate king. There is however, room for improvement in design- lighter, more stylish, cheaper. Were a bloody helmet and save yourself and how to write conclusion, your kids! No, fight against ecocide and carcentric society. Magazine Newspaper Writing. Accidents aren’t the only way cars kill us. I’m a boomer and english, have never owned or driven one of the bloody things. if bicycle helmets did prevent deaths or brain damage, that would be a different story, but the sad fact is that reductions of deaths or brain damage to cyclists wearing helmets have not been recorded in spite of the increased use of helmets. In the meantime, we should consider what a helmet law is really saying; that you’re better off not cycling at all than cycling without a helmet… In BC, this no helmet, no bike rule has some teeth to it. A police officer can not only write conclusion fine a cyclist for not wearing a helmet, they can seize a bike of a cyclist not wearing a helmet. No helmet, no bike.

Is this good public policy? I would tend to take the side of those saying that cyclists should be able to choose whether or not to wear a helmet. Article Feature Magazine Story Write. Personaly,however, I would choose to wear a helmet always. I live in Johannesburg where the roads are very busy and seperate cycle lanes are non existant and I dont expect them to start apearing any time soon. Yes accidents may be just that, accidents. But if I am ever in an accident I want the highest chance possible of coming out of that accident alive or not brain damaged.

If this means wearing a helmet then thats what I’ll do. There is little to add to an ib english insight of the many comments already posted. I think it’s always worth asking “who benefits?”, when it come to these types of laws. The question is equivalent to “follow the how to english, money”. Obviously, helmet makers would like to see helmet laws passed, although it may be short-sighted if cycling rates drop. Cash strapped municipalities undoubtedly see cyclists as cash machines. Politicians love helmet laws! They can feign concern for the safely of the people, while simultaneously dipping in their pockets.

We do not need new barriers to food thesis entry to cycling. Road safety is a complex topic, and it is very difficult to establish cause and how to write english, effect. An accident is just that, an accident: there usually are many related factors contributing to it. On the an ib, other hand, it is clear who will be injured in any collision between a car and a person. The problem with mandatory helmet laws is that they permit people to claim that they are doing something to protect cyclists, when in fact they are avoiding the larger issues: how to design safe and convenient facilities for non-motorized travel.

Pedestrians and cyclists want the how to an ib english essay, same things as cars: to have quick, safe, and convenient access to english gcse no coursework their chosen destinations. Gas prices are going up for good. We will all need to rethink how much we travel, and conclusion, how. It is time that we start seriously considering how to invest in a better and more sustainable future. From Brad’s comments it seems that the research used and essay, real reasons to english gcse enact helmet laws in BC was done in how to an ib english, mora, so how can we ask for how to write english, it to be repealed? It would also be nice to place the onus on write english, the Govt to ensure road safety and proper infrastructure that will make road safe for how to english essay, ALL users. Like Denmark and Holland. Helmets don’t prevent accidents, safe roads does.

Choice is important and when discussing helmet laws, it’s important to research write remember that it is an an ib essay conclusion, adults right of choice that is being taken away. Few, if any pro-choice advocates are arguing that cyclists must remove their helmets but what they are saying is that their right of choice being taken away is wrong. For this right to be removed there must be a justified need and effective solution for the designated problem. Short of this, cyclists should be left to their own discretion as to what action they wish to take and not have smothers will forced upon how to an ib conclusion them. I Choose to wear a helmet whenever I ride my bike because it is PROVEN fact that a helmet will protect me fromthe MOST frequent types of crashes. Is it going to save me 100%? NO! Just like smoking is no guarantee of getting lung cancer (my GP’s lived to their early 90’s and both were heavy smokers for 70+ years). The argument is that a helmet will not save you from a serious crash. Well SERIOUS crashes are going to kill you whether you are walking, driving, cycling or whatever. But I can protect myself from the most frequent of crashes – the smaller ones – by wearing a helmet.

AND using the Dutch example if not quite fair. On Construction. In Holland, Denmark etc. the Bike is #1 on the roads. Cars and pedestrians give way to the bike. They have great cycling infrastructure, a cycling attitude and etiquette. Write An Ib English. Something sorely lacking in N. America. The point is to fight for that in essay, other places. How To Write Conclusion. Le Monde a bicyclette was doing that here in Montreal, 40 years ago this year. Band-aid solutions are pretty much useless, and band-aid solutions that discourage cycling are worse than useless. Re-reading John’s comments, I was struck by his observations of “questionable helmet research” that negates his perception of the benefits of helmets.

Having had seen the article magazine newspaper research, advance press preceding BCs helmet law, read the bills debate in how to english, the legislature, speaking to several key individuals that brought forth the law and now finally reading the minutes, reports, correspondences of the on guernica, organization formed to lobby for the law, I would say that is the promoters of the helmet law that were exploiting questionable research. The only research presented by the group was a single study of questionable validity and the numbers presented by the group were admitted to by the authors to be incorrect. In fact this only study has been admitted by the Snell Foundation to be used as promotion for sales of helmets, not for independent analysis of a helmets effectiveness. It seems helmet skeptics base their skepticism on quality research and helmet promotors base their faith in helmets on questionable research. IMO it’s quite simple. Make it optional. I have no problem if someone wants to wear one however I don’t want to…As matter of fact I’d probably think of getting around other ways if it became law (in Ontario). Many I know in how to conclusion, BC would wear a helmet whether it was law or not, however they are strongly against it being mandated.

Also, my not wanting to wear a helmet has nothing to do with civil liberties. I just see little use in them. Any time I’ve fallen off my bike I’d be better served with shoulder and/or elbow pads…even knee pads. When it comes to winters (which can get cold), I’d rather have my tuque on to keep my ears from falling off, then a helmet. Getting people to wear a piece of expanded foam on their heads requires them to be convinced of two falsehoods: (1) cycling is dangerous, and essay, (2) the piece of foam will protect them in how to essay, a serious crash. Lie #1 scares potential cyclists off their bikes, thus increasing the risk to those who remain, and lie #2 leads to cyclists taking more risks in the mistaken belief that they are well protected. It is therefore not ethically defensible to promote either of these perceptions, let alone enshrine them in law. Oh, and write an ib english essay, has the purpose of BCs legislation been achieved? No. Even with the english no coursework, reduction of people cycling, and write an ib english essay conclusion, more people wearing helmets than ever before, deaths in story write, fact, increased for the first 3 years following legislation.

Helmet legislators hedged their bets though. How To Write An Ib English. They predicted if legislation would not pass, there would be a reverse of the historical trend of downward fatalities for cyclists; that deaths should increase in an ib english conclusion, the future. It would have been good had BC followed trough on the promised funding for article magazine newspaper write writing, a detailed count of cyclists post law, but like the education courses that was a part of the write an ib english essay conclusion, legislation, this funding was pulled after the law was passed, so no counts were available. There has been some information to food thesis come forth that can help us understand some of the impact BC has felt as a result of legislation though. ICBC shows an immediate, and unprecedented drop of 35% in four s travels e case, the amounts of motor vehicle – bicycle collisions immediately after the passing of the law. So unless helmet use has prevented collisions from occurring, there was a drop in how to an ib essay, cyclists immediately following the implementation of the dissertations on construction, law. There has been a notable increase that has been documented several years post law however, and this may have more to do with police not enforcing the law with as much vigor as it was when the law was first introduced.

Stats Canada completed a study that pegged BCs helmet use at 60%, a drop when compared to the study funded by an ib essay the government post law that showed BCs helmet use at 76% overall. ICBC hold records that show helmet use even lower, at 55%. One of the most contentious issues with our legislation involved the stated purpose of the , legislation which was to how to english essay reduce death and serious injury to cyclists. It was reasoned that helmet could help acheive this goal because one, just one study claimed helmet use reduces the chances of head injury by dissertations 85%. What few knew at the time was that the 85% figure only applied to children under 5 years old (10 – 14 year olds had a reduction of only 23%) and that the study did not include a single collision with a motor vehicle, and nearly every death or serious injury to how to write an ib english conclusion a cyclist came from a collision with a motor vehicle.

So yes, statistics and four essays on gulliver, studies do matter in BC. An Ib. If police enforced our helmet law today, there would be a significant reduction in the amount of people cycling, just as there was when the english, law was first passed. The helemt debate has little to do with cycling, more to do with civil liberties. I could live without helmet legislation, but I’m not expending any energy to repeal the laws we have here, and I don’t ride without a helmet. Certainly there are studies that associated declines in numbers of cyclists riding in some jurisdictions with helmet laws, and that is unfortunate. . I think in some of those places, bicycle use rebounded from the initial drop and I think a more useful analysis would have been, in any event, to assess the change in miles ridden, not just the numbers of cyclists. It is not a positive development to how to an ib essay lose the how to write conclusion, casual cyclists, but most who make a positive choice for cycling will not be dissauded by helmet laws. In British Columbia at least, there is no indication that helmet legislation impacted cycling numbers. Participation continues to grow and helmet laws are almost certainly here to stay, notwithstanding the wishful thinking of those who believe the challenges those laws face in other jurisdictions will lead to a repeal in B.C. The threats to an unprotected head often may be elevated by speed, but the write an ib essay conclusion, real damage is the distance of the fall.

You can do significant damage falling from a bike at low speed. The acceleration forces on your head can be fatal, and , unlike most other activities mentioned in various comments, bicycles are inherently unstable. They do not stand on their own without the gyroscopic effects of forward motion (unless you are good at how to an ib essay track stands), so it is more dangerous than walking. There are good reasons, many cited, for being skeptical of helmet laws – the four essays on gulliver s travels, health benefits of riding far outweigh the write english essay, risks and article feature newspaper research story writing, there are certainly problems with helmet laws that will frustrate bike share programs. Write English Essay Conclusion. Fair comment.

Still, I find the article feature newspaper research write, reliance on questionable health research to bolster the write essay, argument is about as credible as the essay, quacks who dismiss links between smoking and feature research, cancers. The distinction between fatalities or not is also a little simplistic. Write An Ib English Essay. You don’t have to die to render yourself impotent in the debate. Hard to four on gulliver argue that your civil liberties have been enhanced by write conclusion reducing your IQ to the low 20s after a head injury. Argue your point on the issue of civil liberties, but the misuse of statistics or the clutching at studies to claim that helmets don’t provide protection will, for the most part, alienate decison makers and others in how to write, the community who presumably you want to listen to you. You have to english decide whether you want to write english essay rant against injustice or advance your cause. I’ve had my own crashes and can only contemplate what might have happened to my head without a helmet; I’ve known a few who have died while riding for whom a helmet may have made a difference. I also have known a few cyclists who have had life altering crashes. Stick to the civil liberties argument, on most other issues the debate is over.

John Luton, Victoria, BC. Northern European cyclists have significantly better safety records the the US because safe cycling has little do do with wearing helmets. Interesting article about the helmet hype, but it presents no data to support either side. Many people feel that helmets are less useful in European countries, but is there data to support that? Are head injury rates (per mile or per bicyclist) really lower in feature newspaper write writing, Europe than the US? In the how to an ib, Netherlands and Denmark, they are MUCH lower. Gcse. Not all European countries have good cycling infrastructure. I disagree with the authors conclusions.

I don’t think we are at a crossroads with helmet laws, I think that road has been crossed. How To. There was a surge of helmet laws passed mostly in the 90’s and that surge has slowed to a trickle largely to the documented results in those areas that enacted them. I do agree with idea that perception, rather than fact, is what drives the desire to place a helmet upon a head. If people understood that cycling is safe, and on construction, if they understood the limitations of a helmet, fewer people would wear them. As it is, the exaggerated perception of cycling danger and on guernica, the expectation of life saving abilities of a helmet are what drives their use. False assumptions, both. Most utilitarian cyclists would be better off spending their money on better lights, or better tires for that matter. Do not fall into the trap of letting the essay conclusion, supposed perfect be the essay on guernica, enemy of the good.

It is far better that people ride bikes without a helmet than they don’t ride bikes. An Ib Essay Conclusion. If helmet laws dissuade people from cycling then they are a bad thing. It doesn’t matter that helmets are more totem than protection for any kind of serious crash – if the laws stop people riding bikes then they are bad laws. Helmet laws are a product of life-style zealots who can’t resist the essay, opportunity to write essay conclusion interfere in dissertations, the lives and habits of others. Well done Colin Clarke. This proves why Holland and Denmark DON’T have helmet laws! I recently started biking in how to an ib, San Francisco after a long time living in less bike-friendly places. Dissertations. I assumed that, as in most college towns, helmets would be unpopular with the experienced cyclists but in fact it’s the other way around: as one veteran cyclist explained, “no one wants to be the person that gets killed or injured without a helmet and write essay, results in a mandatory helmet law.” I was surprised that nearly everyone seems to food thesis wear a helmet, even in how to english, parks and on essay, streets closed to write english conclusion auto traffic (!). Also, some have pointed out that not wearing a helmet (especially with a nicer bike) might signify that you are riding a stolen bike… The assessment of Australian helmet law shows the outcome was negative for both health and food thesis, safety. How To Write English Conclusion.

The result for New Zealand is very similar. For the essay on guernica, USA there are also concerns. The UK’s National Children’s Bureau (NCB) provided a detailed review in 2005 stating “the case for helmets is far from sound”, “the benefits of helmets need further investigation before even a policy supporting promotion can be unequivocally supported” and “the case has not yet been convincingly made for how to write conclusion, compulsory use or promotion of cycle helmets.” The ECF (European Cycling Federation) stated “the evidence from Australia and New Zealand suggests that the on guernica, wearing of helmets might even make cycling more dangerous,” indicating safety was actually reduced. How To An Ib English Conclusion. Erke and Elvik (Norwegian researchers) 2007 stated: “There is evidence of increased accident risk per cycling-km for how to write english essay conclusion, cyclists wearing a helmet.

In Australia and New Zealand, the increase is estimated to be around 14 per cent.” Data for gcse no coursework, children shows their safety has been reduced. Robinson 1996 report, Table 5 shows data for how to write an ib essay conclusion, children in Victoria. The equivalent number of injuries for pre law level of number of cyclists increased from 897 in 1990 to write an ib essay 1035 in 1992. The increased injury rate was 15%. For New South Wales their survey data also showed reduced cycling following legislation in 1991. A reduction of 44% occurred. Robinson 1996 report, Table 2 shows data for children in four on gulliver s travels arthur e case, NSW. The equivalent number of injuries for how to english, pre law level of number of cyclists increased from 1310 in how to write an ib essay conclusion, 1991 to 2083 in 1993. Their helmet laws discouraged cycling and reduced children’s safety.

The increased injury rate was 59%. For New Zealand it was reported “Of particular concern are children and adolescents who have experienced the greatest increase in the risk of cycling injuries despite a substantial decline in essay conclusion, the amount of cycling over the past two decades’. Police figures for NZ show 9618 tickets were issued in 2010 for essay, not wearing a helmet. In Victoria, Australia they issued more than 19000 in the first 12 months of their law . Curnow reporting on Australia concluded, “Compulsion to wear a bicycle helmet is detrimental to public health”. Accidental hanging is still occurring among young children who wear bicycle helmets while engaging in activities other than bicycle riding. Worldwide, the an ib essay conclusion, toll of deaths has now reached at least 14, with examples in food thesis, the USA, Canada, Australia and Scandinavia.

Helmet laws for bicyclists are a mistake. Curnow WJ, Bicycle helmets and public health in Australia, Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2008 Apr;19(1):10-15. Gill T, Cycling and Children and write essay conclusion, Young People – A review, National Children’s Bureau, 2005. European Cycling Federation. ‘Improving bicycle safety without making helmet use compulsory; Erke A, Elvik R, Making Vision Zero real: Preventing Pedestrian Accidents And Making Them Less Severe, Oslo June 2007. page 28. Robinson DL; Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws; Accid Anal Prev, 28, 4: p 463-475, 1996

The author gives too little attention to the most important point, and completely ignores the on construction, second most important point in this debate. The first? Bicycling does NOT cause significant risk of serious head injuries. In the U.S. it causes fewer than 1% of HI fatalties, whereas motoring causes about 50% and walking around the home causes about 40%. And it’s not just because there are few bicyclists. Pedestrians die at more than triple the rate of bicyclists, per mile. (And BTW, head trauma is the cause of over half of _all_ accidental fatalities, not just those of bicyclists.) In 2009, just 630 bicyclists died of all causes, compared to over 30,000 motorists and 12,000 people falling down stairs! Bicycling is simply not very dangerous, despite the fear mongering. It is safer than many other common no-helmet activities, and its benefits (exercise, pollution reduction, etc.) greatly outweigh any tiny risks. The second important fact: Widespread adoption of bike helmets has had no beneficial effect. How To Write Essay Conclusion. As explained in a July 29, 2001 article in the New York Times (based on data posted at ) head injuries per cyclist did not fall when helmets became heavily promoted and their use soared. Instead, head injuries actually rose significantly.

This is probably because bike helmets are certified to protect only gentle impacts less than 13 mph, and then only how to if the impact is perfectly centered. How To Essay Conclusion. They cannot work for most serious crashes, and they have not worked in food thesis, any population that has adopted them widely, even though every person who dents their helmet seems to how to english believe it has saved their life! To summarize: Don’t assume bicycling is dangerous, and don’t assume helmets are wonderfully effective. Bicycling is NOT dangerous enough to require helmets, even in non-cycling countries like the , U.S. And bike helmets have NOT proven to be effective.

They are an ineffective solution to an imaginary problem. Promotion of helmets has scared people away from this benign mode of transport. We should let bike helmets and how to english essay conclusion, their promotion die the same death as the article research story write, tall bicycle flippy-flags of the 1970s. The last time I narrowly missed a potentially serious head injury was in the shower. Hard to how to write essay conclusion wear a helmet in the shower, especially if one is washing one’s hair. I wear a helmet, having one saved me in more than one car/bike accident, as my head hit the pavement. I’ve ridden motorcycles for years also, and have been saved by the helmet, in fact the helmet was ground through the shell and into the padding after a 50 mph slide. It is good to wear a helmet, but it should be a person’s choice, unless they are under 18, then it should be mandatory.

You cannot make a person wear a helmet, but consider that those who don’t wear a helmet will someday discover why others wear one, although they may learn never live to learn the lesson. Well, I’ve been cycling for 50 years. Chances are extremely good that I’ll die of something else. Helmet laws in New Zealand have been a health and safety disaster. Since helmet compulsion was introduced in 1994, rates of cycling continued to fall, most cyclists started wearing helmets, and injury rates rose. Is that what we want more of? When Norway considered helmet laws, they used the NZ experience as evidence against helmet compulsion. If you want more people cycling, resist helmet laws. An Ib Essay Conclusion. They are hard to get ride of, so beware.

Also, in Norway, as here, we want to food thesis be able to wear our woolly hats in how to write an ib essay, the cold! Enter to win the limited edition Bordo Black and Yadd-I helmet from ABUS.

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A New Biography Shows That ‘John Wayne’ Was His Own Best Creation. “Truly, this man was the son of God.” Thus speaks a Roman centurion at the end of how to George Stevens’s inaptly named The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965). English! It’s a line that always gets a big laugh, partly because the idea of anything so irreligious as Hollywood hokum commenting on the provenance of write an ib english conclusion Jesus Christ is food thesis, axiomatically funny, but mostly because the centurion is played by write an ib essay conclusion John Wayne, a movie star who might have known a son of dissertations on construction a gun when he saw one, but who patently knew precious little else. Except, one learns from Scott Eyman’s exhaustive new biography, John Wayne: the how to an ib english essay, Life and Legend, Wayne was a rather more cultivated man than his movie persona allowed. He was a talented chess-player and no slouch at bridge, and he had a penchant for reciting Milton and Dickens and Shakespeare from memory. Among the titles on write essay conclusion, his bookshelves were first editions of Lolita and Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings , as well as a complete set of food thesis Winston Churchill’s prose. True, he got into write an ib, the University of Southern California on a football scholarship. But at high school, in Glendale, he had won the essay of the year award, had written for the student newspaper, was a lynchpin of the debating team and was both President of the Latin society and Chairman of the Senior Dance. No Coursework! That chairmanship would come in an ib essay conclusion, handy. Dance was vital to Wayne’s onscreen presence.

It was the way he moved that made him a star. A big, big man (arguments still rage among fans about his chest measurement and whether he was six two or six four), he carried himself like a ballerina, with a tensile elegance far more expressive than any of the dialogue the movies gave him to say. He was Hemingway’s idea of courage as grace under pressure come to life. Article Feature Research Write! “Looking up at him,” Louise Brooks said of her first meeting with Wayne, “I thought, this is no actor but the an ib essay conclusion, hero of all mythology miraculously brought to life … John was, in fact, that which Henry James defined as the gcse no coursework, greatest of all works of art—a purely beautiful being.” That was in 1938, during the an ib english conclusion, shoot of food thesis Overland Stage Raiders , one of the last movie-a-week oaters Wayne appeared in before John Ford’s Stagecoach (1939) made him a star. An Ib English! He’d fetched up in Hollywood a decade or so earlier after crashing out of USC. Gcse! Wayne (or Marion Morrison as everybody then knew him) had injured his shoulder while bodysurfing, and the college authorities soon made it known they wouldn’t be renewing his scholarship.

He got a job at an ib, Fox studios, working as a prop boy. Story Writing! Soon enough he was one of Ford’s drinking and how to an ib english essay conclusion gambling buddies. Yet while he used him for the odd uncredited walk-on, Ford never seems to have believed his young worshipper was cut out for stardom. But then, in 1930, when Marion was 23, he was spotted by one of Ford’s rivals. Raoul Walsh saw him effortlessly carrying an armchair above his head and was captivated. “He was … laughing and the expression on his face was so warm and wholesome that I stopped and watched. I noticed the fine physique of the food thesis, boy, his careless strength.” After a cursory read-through, Walsh offered him a part in write an ib english, The Big Trail . He’d get $75 a week ($40 more than he was making working props)—provided he was willing to drop the Marion. What did he think about John Wayne? And what, meanwhile, did John Ford think about four essays e case, his protege having gone off with a rival? Not much, says Eyman, who reports that “after The Big Trail Ford cut Wayne dead.” Eight years and write essay conclusion more than 60 B-pictures in which Wayne played anonymous soldiers and pilots and ball players would go by before they worked together again.

Not, argues Eyman, that those years were wasted. On Construction! All through the how to an ib english essay, ’30s, he says, this untrained chancer was “watching and learning.” As his experience grew, so did his talent. “Reactions that had once been far too large were increasingly unobtrusive. Wayne is on construction, listening, then reacting—he’s becoming a thinking actor.” Even today, there are those who will snort at the suggestion of Wayne having been any kind of conscious artist. But as Eyman’s densely observant account makes clear, Wayne did indeed spend his long apprenticeship imagining and write constructing the physical and moral exemplar he believed the movies—and increasingly, as the 20 th century wore on, America itself—needed. Wayne always said that this exemplar, this pistol-packing paragon who both guaranteed civilization and remained in perpetual exile from it, was no more than “the kind of man I’d like to have been.” Maybe so, but there were millions of an ib english essay conclusion other guys who wanted in on the dream.

As Eyman puts it, generations of Americans saw Wayne as the embodiment of “a sort of race memory of manifest destiny.” Still, Wayne’s own destiny likely wouldn’t have been all that manifest without Ford to whip its wagons along. English! It is on the strength of essays s travels a half dozen or so of the movies that he made under Ford’s direction that Wayne’s reputation largely rests. Without Stagecoach and The Searchers (1956), without Fort Apache (1948) and Rio Grande (1950) and The Quiet Man (1952) , Wayne’s CV would look a lot less burnished than it does. (To that list of write english conclusion meisterwerks should be added two of the five pictures Wayne made with Howard Hawks, Rio Bravo (1959) and Red River (1948). So good is the food thesis, latter—and Wayne so good in it—that Ford is said to have been astounded. “I never knew,” he rasped, “the son of essay a bitch could act.”) But Ford was always bad-mouthing Wayne. Eyman, who in essays on gulliver s travels arthur e case, 2001 published a biography of english essay Ford, gives a lot of space over to analyzing the fond but fractious relations between director and star.

Devoted to making Wayne look good on screen, Ford loved hectoring and humiliating him on set—especially over Wayne’s not having served during World War II. Food Thesis! Ford, more than one previous biographer has argued, believed Wayne a coward, but Eyman has chapter and verse to prove that his man was no “war wimp.” In August 1943, Wayne applied to join “Wild” Bill Donovan’s Office of Strategic Services (OSS), but never got an answer. Write An Ib English Conclusion! (Donovan’s secretary later said Wayne was turned down because his “outside interests” weren’t suitable for english gcse no coursework, “undercover work.”) Nor was this Wayne’s only rejection. A year or so earlier, in May 1942, something similar had happened with Ford himself. Wayne, who “had an an ib essay image of himself as an officer under Ford” (then a commander in the U.S. Navy), wrote the dissertations, man he always addressed as “Dear Pappy,” seeking a post. “Can I get assigned to your outfit,” he asked, “and if I could would you want me? How about the Marines? … what would you suggest?” “There is,” says Eyman, “no response from Ford in either his or Wayne’s papers.” Still, we are left with the mystery—a mystery not even the indefatigable Eyman resolves—as to an ib, why Wayne never once responded to Ford’s slights. Food Thesis! Whatever abuse Ford threw at him, Wayne just stood there silent taking it. Huh? It’s not as if other people didn’t tell Ford where to get off. As Eyman reports, Wayne had seen his co-star in write english, The Horse Soldiers (1959), the decidedly less macho William Holden, threaten to how to an ib english conclusion, throw Ford in the river if he didn’t stop needling him. And when, during The Searchers shoot, Ford tore a strip off the 17-year-old Natalie Wood for sunbathing, she gave him a dressing down right back: “Go shit in how to write conclusion, your hat!” Eyman is on , surer ground with what he calls Wayne’s “dangerously extreme” politics.

He does a nice job of teasing out the how to write english essay conclusion, contradictions in Wayne’s faith in personal responsibility, his belief that “government is the write an ib english essay conclusion, enemy of the how to write english, individual,” and his admission that he was just “a stagehand who got lucky.” And he points out article newspaper research story writing, that the most iconic performances of Wayne’s career—Ethan Edwards in The Searchers , Tom Doniphon in how to, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) , even the s travels arthur, outlaw the Ringo Kid in Stagecoach— came in movies that “focus on how to english essay conclusion, the need to subordinate individual needs to a collective good.” Shooting The Comancheros in 1961, Wayne spotted a JFK button on the lapel of the future screenwriter Tom Mankiewicz. On Guernica! “We don’t advertise socialists on my set,” he joshingly barked. Fair enough, though despite The Green Berets (1968), a risible dud in which the by then 61-year-old Wayne’s Colonel Mike Kirby all but singlehandedly fought the Vietnam war, not all Wayne’s movies were advertisements for free-market libertarianism either. But even today, 35 years after his death, Wayne the reactionary blowhard remains a familiar figure. The great virtue of Eyman’s biography is that it transforms that blowhard into an altogether recognizable human being. How To Write English Essay Conclusion! “When the legend becomes fact,” a journalist says of Wayne in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance , “we print the food thesis, legend.” Eyman, who stole that last phrase for the title of his Ford biography, here succeeds in turning Wayne’s legend back into fact—all the while remaining alive to the potency of the fantasies his man licensed. Write An Ib Essay Conclusion! To be sure, Eyman can’t pretend to the historical range and cultural insight of Garry Wills, whose masterly John Wayne’s America remains the key text on Wayne the emblematic hero of food thesis a million daydreams. But even Wayne’s detractors—those unconvinced by how to write english his acting, those disgusted by his agitprop (the two often go hand in hand)—will surely warm to gcse, him as they read Eyman’s account of the abuse he suffered at how to conclusion, the hand of his mother, the essays s travels arthur, despair he felt as another marriage failed, the kind words and how to conclusion helping hands he offered to so many new actors on the block.

Truly, Eyman makes you realize, this god among gun-slingers was a man.

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“Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the how to write an ib english essay conclusion person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information.

When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on how to write conclusion, our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and dissertations on construction our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of how to conclusion information associated with Your use of food thesis our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. How To Write English Conclusion. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies.

A “cookie” is dissertations, a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in how to an ib english essay order, for write an ib conclusion example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. An Ib Essay Conclusion. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the how to write an ib english essay conclusion user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on essay, our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and article story write writing Your experience. Depending upon how to an ib conclusion Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on write english conclusion, the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an english HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and how to english conclusion the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about write essay conclusion You from other sources.

For example, We may receive credit information from how to conclusion, third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for write english Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from english, us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of how to write conclusion Your transactions and food thesis interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;

To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about how to write current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of article magazine newspaper our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for legal purposes.

We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from how to write an ib english conclusion, other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. Write English Essay. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU.

We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in four writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing).

In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in how to write essay conclusion the unlikely event of four essays e case insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and write an ib essay conclusion collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in write an ib english conclusion order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the write an ib english appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from how to write english conclusion, unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.

As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against how to english essay, the loss, misuse, or alteration of write an ib english Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at how to write an ib english Your own risk. How To English Essay. You should always take care with how You handle and write essay conclusion disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media).

PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at how to write an ib essay any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on , the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).